1491 (MCDXCI) was a normal year that began on a Sunday in the Julian calendar.
Sten Sture the Elder ends up in conflict with the church over the right of will to churches and monasteries and the right to bishop appointments. He gets the Riksdag against him, when he obtains permission from the pope to appoint the bishops in Linköping, Strängnäs and Turku. He has previously confiscated goods in Södermanland and kept them himself, instead of, as promised, giving them to Uppsala Cathedral.
Öregrund receives city privileges.
June 28 - Henry VIII, King of England 1509–1547, Lord of Ireland 1509–1542 and King of Ireland 1542–1547.
October 12 - Reinhard von Solms zu Lich, German count, general, military engineer and military theorist.
November 14 - Emperor Zhengde, Chinese emperor
December 31 - Jacques Cartier, French explorer.
Antonios Eparchos, Greek humanist.
Isabella Losa, Spanish doctor of theology.
William Caxton, England's first printer.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1491.