Animation or animation technique (from Latin: give soul or bring to life) refers to a process where you show a sequence of two-dimensional or three-dimensional works of art or figures in quick succession to create a moving image. This visual error is due to the inertia of the eye (or so-called Beta movement), the same phenomenon that makes carriage wheels that spin at a certain speed seem to spin in the opposite direction. The still images can be drawn, photographed, computer animated or made with dolls or other models (via stop motion). The most common method of showing animation is as a movie or on TV, but there are several other possibilities. Outside of pure animated films, animation techniques are also used to create special effects in feature films.
Producing animated film is very labor intensive and requires skill, accuracy and a lot of patience. It is therefore also expensive. A standard animated feature film with about 24 frames per second requires about 130,000 individual images. With a computer and shortcuts, the animation work can be greatly simplified. But animation is still for the most part a craft.
Early attempts to depict movement are found in cave paintings from the Paleolithic era, where animals are depicted with many legs in overlapping positions to show movement.
A 5,200-year-old earthen bowl found in Shahr-i Sokhta, Iran, has five images of a goat on the side. This has been called an example of early animation. Since there were no tools for seeing the images in motion, such a series of images cannot be called animation in the true sense of the word. In China, as early as 180 AD. a zoetrope-like apparatus ..
During the 18th century, fenakistoscopes, praxinoscopes and flipcharts became popular animation experiments. These methods tried to create movement from sequences of drawings through technical solutions, but the animation did not really develop much until the first films. Although there is no one who "invented" the film animation, as several were doing different types of animation at the same time, one of the most famous was George Méliès. He happened to spot a technology when a camera broke while filming a passing bus, and the camera started when a hearse was in the same place. The transformation led Méliès to experiment further with the technology.
The American J. Stuart Blackton used the technique stop motion and drawing in several films around the year 1900, for example Humorous Phases of Funny Faces (1906), often mentioned as one of the first real animated films.
The Frenchman Émile Cohl created a film in 1908 called Fantasmagorie. The film is about a line character who encounters different things that are transformed, but also parts where real things, such as the artist's hands, appear in the picture. The images were drawn on paper and transferred to negative film, which not only made the film appear to be drawn on a blackboard, but also made it the world's first film to use what would later be called traditional animation, i.e. hand-drawn animation.
Animated short films, so-called cartoons, became their own industry in the 1910s and were shown in cinemas. The most successful producer during this period was John Randolph Bray, who together with the cartoonist Earl Hurd patented the cell animation process, which dominated the industry for the rest of the decade.
A pioneer in this context is UPA, United Productions of America, which in competition with Walt Disney began to apply a more abstract style than Disney's highly naturalistic. Simplified images allowed the audience to read in more of their own feelings and thoughts, while each image required less work and thus became cheaper and faster to produce. Simplified animation techniques have reduced production costs and mass-produced animations that are broadcast via TV and the Internet around the clock.