Bosnia and Herzegovina

Article

December 6, 2021

Bosnia and Herzegovina or Bosnia-Herzegovina, popularly usually only Bosnia, is a state in southern Europe in the Balkan Peninsula bordering Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro. The country has a little more than 3.8 million inhabitants and its capital is Sarajevo. The country is mainly populated by three constitutional peoples: Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats (according to the Dayton Accords). most of the medieval Bosnian kingdom and made it a province in its empire. In 1878, Austria-Hungary occupied the province and annexed it 30 years later. After World War I, the country ended up in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia in 1992, but after the Bosnian war following the declaration of independence, the country has been divided into two administrative entities and one district since the 1995 Dayton peace agreement: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska and Brčko district. According to the 2013 census, 50.11% were Bosniaks, 35.0% Serbs, 14.4% Croats and 0.6% others. The BiH Federation is populated by about 71% Bosniaks, 23% Croats and about 6% Serbs, the other entity Republika Srpska is populated by 89% Serbs, 7% Bosniaks and 2% Croats and the Brčko district by 42% Serbs, 38% Bosniaks and 20 % Croatian. The country is a potential candidate for membership of the European Union (EU) and in April 2010 received a so-called MAP (Membership Action Plan) from NATO, which is the last step before full membership in the Defense Alliance.

History

Antiquity

In ancient times, present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina was part of Illyria. South Slavic tribes moved into the area from the north during the migration period in the 6th century. The South Slavic tribes who moved into the area assimilated the former populations, mainly Illyrians but also Romans, Goths, Celts, Huns, Alans, Avars and Gepids. Bosnia is first mentioned in writings from the ninth century. One theory is that the name Bosnia comes from the Illyrian word bosona meaning 'running water', from the river Bosna which flows in central Bosnia.

Medieval

According to some historians, the Bosniaks have been an individual people at least since the 10th century. However, the language spoken by people in southern, eastern and central Bosnia-Herzegovina from around the 9th century until the Ottoman conquest of Bosnia-Herzegovina during this period was called Serbian, so many historians believe that Bosniaks from these areas were originally Serbs while Bosniaks from northwestern Bosnia-Herzegovina are Croats as these areas belonged to Croatia and the old Croatian dialect Chakavi was spoken there before the Ottoman conquest. For example. so the Bosnian king Tvrtko wrote four copies of a document. Two in, as he writes, Serbian (Bosnian language) and two in Latin, the lingua franca of the time. Roman province of Dalmatia. It was not until the ninth century that Frankish and Byzantine sources began to mention the early Slavic state formations in western Illyricum. In the 6th century, slaves along the Bosnia River created the first independent kingdom, Sklavinia, (Greek: Σκλαβινίαι, Latin: Sclaviniae), ruled by local chiefs, called župans. In fact, the Slavinians were a collective term for the South Slavic settlements that were originally independent and autonomous from Byzantine rule, but which occasionally served as vassal states to the Avarkhaganate. These small Slavic kingdoms gave rise to a number of states

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