Covid-19 vaccine


December 1, 2021

A covid-19 vaccine is a vaccine that is intended to confer immunity to covid-19 disease. When the covid-19 pandemic broke out, there was already work to develop a vaccine against two other diseases caused by coronavirus, sars and mers. Therefore, they already had a fairly good knowledge of the structure and properties of the coronavirus, which shortened the path to a functioning covid-19 vaccine. in Phase II - III studies. In phase III studies, several covid-19 vaccines showed high efficacy, with a protective effect of around 95% compared to no treatment. The EU (European Medicines Agency, EMA) and the USA have approved two mRNA vaccines (Comirnaty from Pfizer / Biontech and COVID-19 Vaccine Moderna from Moderna). In addition, five additional vaccines have been approved by some national drug authorities: two conventional inactivated vaccines (BBIBP-CorV from Sinopharm and Coronavac from Sinovac) and three viral vector vaccines (Sputnik V from Gamaleya Research Institute, Vaxzevria from Oxford University and Astra Zeneca, and Ad26.COV2). S from Janssen-Cilag International). Mass vaccination began in the UK on 8 December 2020 and in Sweden on 27 December 2020. Many countries have implemented step-by-step distribution plans that prioritize those who are most at risk for serious symptoms, such as the elderly, and those at high risk for exposure and transmission, such as healthcare professionals. By February 7, 2021, approximately 128 million doses of covid-19 vaccine had been given worldwide based on official reports from national health authorities. Pfizer, Moderna and Astra Zeneca predicted a production capacity of 5.3 billion doses by 2021, which could be used to vaccinate about 3 billion people (since the vaccines require two doses for a protective effect against covid-19). By December 2020, more than 10 billion vaccine doses had been pre-ordered by countries. About half of these doses had been ordered by high-income countries, whose inhabitants make up only 14% of the world's total population.


In early January 2020, immediately after the sars-cov-2 virus was sequenced in China, a number of development projects were launched to develop the covid-19 vaccine. The World Health Organization (WHO) stated in February that a vaccine would not be available in less than 18 months, but it turned out to be faster. Among others, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation funded the development of selected vaccine candidates in early 2020. In May 2020, the WHO organized a television broadcast to raise SEK 80 billion from forty countries to support the rapid development of vaccines. At the beginning of August 2020, 100–150 vaccine candidates were under development, depending on how one counts, of which 23–31 in clinical trials. Those who came furthest were then Astra Zeneca and Oxford University (Jenner Institute and Oxford Vaccine Group) with the vaccine AZD1222, with phase III trials starting in June. In the summer of 2020, a few more companies had vaccine candidates in, or with far-reaching preparations for, phase III trials - for example Pfizer / Biontech and Moderna. On December 8, 2020, the World Health Organization listed 52 vaccine candidates, who then underwent clinical trials in some phase, of which 13 in the final phase, phase III. In addition, there were 162 vaccine candidates in preclinical evaluation.

International cooperation

COVID-19 Tools Accelerator (ACT Accelerator), or the global collaboration to accelerate development, production and equitable access to the new covid-19 vaccine, [explanation needed], is a G20 initiative announced on April 24, 2020. On September 10, 2021, the work of the UN and the European Union brought together the work of the ACT Accelerator, which had received $ 2.7 billion out of a total of $ 35 billion deemed needed to secure the

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