Guatemala

Article

December 6, 2021

Guatemala, formally the Republic of Guatemala (Spanish: República de Guatemala), is a republic in Central America. The country borders Mexico to the north, Belize to the northeast and El Salvador and Honduras to the south. Guatemala has two coasts, to the east is a narrow coast to the Caribbean Sea and to the west is the Pacific coast. Guatemala claims parts of Belize, and there are Guatemalan settlements in that area.

History

Pre-Columbian time

Guatemala's earliest history is strongly influenced by the Maya people and the earliest signs from the Mayan period, the researchers believe, are between 2000 BC. and 1500 BC. As early as 1100 BC. the Olmec people will start building pyramids and carve out large quarries. The Olmecs are quite often referred to as Mesoamerica's mother culture. These people had a great influence throughout the Mayan region, and especially influenced art, mythology and politics, but they also developed an early writing system and calendar. The period around and after 300 is considered the most important epoch in Mayan history. The Maya people now came under the influence of Teotihuacán in Mexico, a city of about 250,000 inhabitants. Another city, Tikal, emerged as a dominant center of power in the land of the Mayans. At the same time, the city of Calakmul also grew. From 500, these cities were so large that all other cities in the region belonged to either of them. Calakmul defeated Tikal 562, followed by a 130-year stagnation of development. Between 600 and 850, there was again great prosperity in the Mayan areas. The Maya people were united in the same beliefs and culture, and the Mayan architecture, astronomy, mathematics and art reached so high that no other pre-Columbian society could compete with them. Trade flourished and the population grew to about 10 million inhabitants around 750. From 750 to 830 and beyond, these trade relations were broken, wars broke out, cities were abandoned and no new temples or monuments were built as before. The basis for the decline in 2007 was summarized as a combination of escalating fighting, overpopulation, environmental degradation, drought and the extravagance of the elite.

Spanish colonization

From the 14th century until the Spanish invasion of Guatemala in 1523, there were constant wars between the various tribes and different ethnic groups in the country. Due to the poor cohesion and internal strife, they met the Spaniards with little united resistance. The Spaniards also had a great advantage with their horses, armor and rifles. It is said that the Spanish conquistador Pedro de Alvarado with his 620 men defeated 30,000 k'iche 'warriors near Xelajú. The Spanish colonial power administered the area as the General Guatemala, part of the larger colony of New Spain.

1800s

On September 15, 1821, the territory became part of the Mexican Empire, from its dissolution in 1823 in the United Provinces of Central America, but in 1839 the Republic of Guatemala declared its independence. As in many other Latin American countries, a civil war broke out between liberal reformists with the support of the bourgeoisie and conservatives who wanted to preserve the privileges of the Catholic Church and the estates. The Conservatives won over the Liberal Government after their leader General Rafael Carrera (1814–1865) defeated the Liberals under a command of the Honduran Francisco Morazán (1814–1865) in 1840. General Carrera then ruled the country until his death, except for the period 1848– 51, and the privileges of the aristocracy were preserved while waging successful wars against neighboring countries. In 1871, Carrera's successor Vicente Cerna was overthrown by the Liberals under Miguel García Granados Zavala, who in 1873 was succeeded by the liberal dictator Justo Rufino Barrios Auyón who expropriated the church property, expelled the Jesuits, proclaimed a constitutional reform and resumed the central " Salvador. Perio

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