Yemen

Article

December 1, 2021

Yemen, alternatively Yemen (Arabic: اليَمَن, al-Yaman), formally the Republic of Yemen (الجُمهُورِية اليَمنيِة), is a state in the southern Arabian Peninsula in southwest Asia. Yemen means the Land on the right (about Mecca) and is the area in southern Arabia that the ancient Greek and Roman geographers called Arabia felix (Happy Arabia). Yemen has land borders in the north to Saudi Arabia and in the east to Oman and has a long coast to the Arabian Sea in the southeast and the Red Sea in the west. Motor vehicles from Yemen bear the YAR nationality mark according to the UN Convention and the nationality designations YE and YEM respectively according to ISO 3166.

History

Yemen's history dates back to the 8th century BC. especially characterized by the trade in incense and the kingdoms based on it. The most significant of these was Saba with its capital Marib. Even long before the birth of Christ, the province of Yemen had flourished in agriculture and trade. Fortified cities, castles and temples had risen. But during the Hellenistic era, the country lost the main source of its prosperity, the monopoly on Indian trade, and thus ended the glorious days of southern Arabia. Eventually, a slow decline began for the ancient kingdoms along the "incense path". By the early Middle Ages, the focus of the Arabian Peninsula's political power had shifted north to the coastal lands of Hijaz with the cities of Mecca, Medina and Taif. The Roman Empire attempted to conquer Yemen 24 BC, but failed to place the Sabeans under Augustus' rule. The Himyarites succeeded in uniting the country once again in the 200s, but were conquered in 525 by King Ela Asbeha of the Axumite Empire in Abyssinia. The southern Arab feudal elite, dissatisfied with the foreign dependence, later turned to the Persian Empire for help. The Persian king Khusrov I sent a troop to the country and, in conjunction with the rebellious nobility, was able to expel the Abyssinian governor. After this, Yemen, admittedly almost exclusively by name, was under Persian domination. Yemen joined the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad in 628 and the people quickly adopted Islam. Within the Caliphate, however, Yemen became a fringe state. This favored the emergence of several ruling dynasties in the ninth century, the most significant of which were the Shia Islamic Zaydites who would rule in northern Yemen until 1962. When the emphasis of the Mediterranean-India trade route shifted from Iraq to Egypt in the ninth century, it also began in Yemen. economic recovery. The country experienced its heyday during the rasulids right into the 15th century. With the Portuguese's discovery of the sea route to India, Yemen lost importance in world trade, but with the opening of the Suez Canal in the 19th century, Yemen returned to the focus of the great powers. In the mid-19th century, Britain occupied Aden and southern Yemen, while the Ottoman Empire occupied the northern part of the country. The British rule lasted until 1967 when they left Aden and independent South Yemen was formed. During the Zaydites in 1911, northern Yemen was able to assert its independence from the Ottomans and formed the Kingdom of Yemen at the end of the First World War in 1918. The Conservative regime of the Imams led to the overthrow of the Zaydites in 1962 and the proclamation of the Arab Republic of Yemen. After this, a modernization of the country was initiated, but the economic problems could not in fact be solved due to the rapid population growth. A merger between North Yemen and South Yemen succeeded in 1990 in uniting the countries into one kingdom, the Republic of Yemen. The joint president was Ali Abdullah Saleh, who has been president of North Yemen since 1978.

Yemen after 1990

The first parliamentary elections after the unification took place in 1993, when Abd Aziz Abd Ghani as leader of the General People's Congress (GPC) won 123 seats. Islah, a coalition of Islamists and tribal leaders, won 62 seats and Yemeni Social

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