Castile

Article

December 6, 2021

Castile is the historic region in Spain where, among other places, Madrid is located today. The name comes from the many castles (Spanish: Castillos) that are located there. Castile has been known as a special county since 923, when it belonged to the Kingdom of Leon. Under Sancho III of Pamplona, ​​it was made a separate kingdom, which he inherited from his son Ferdinand, who reunited it with León. The association did not last. During the following century, the history of Castile was determined by alternating internal and external strife. To the south, Castile expanded during the latter part of the 11th century to include New Castile, after the conquest of Toledo and Talavera by the Córdoba caliphate. With other Christian states on the Pyrenees peninsula, Castile was alternately in war, alliances, and temporary unions. In 1217, Castile was finally united with León under Ferdinand the Holy. From the end of the 14th century, Castile was drawn into the diplomatic sphere of the Franco-English Hundred Years' War. With the claim of the throne to the throne, Henrik of Trastámara, over the cruel Pedro 1369 and subsequent takeover of the land, the French-based phalanx triumphed. Henry's descendants ruled Castile for 100 years, until with the legacy of Princess Isabella's marriage in 1469 to Ferdinand II of Aragon, the present Spanish Empire was founded. Medieval Castile was a divided feudal state with weak monarchy. The unifying element was the cities, which through confederations supported the kings in internal disputes. The nobility, however, played a dominant role in the estates and in the frequent battles for the throne.

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