Christian II


December 6, 2021

Kristian II (Danish: Christian 2.), in Sweden best known as Kristian Tyrann, born July 1, 1481 at Nyborg Castle, Denmark, died January 25, 1559 at Kalundborg Castle, Denmark, was king of Denmark and Norway 1513–1523 and king of Sweden 1520–1521. He was the son of King Hans, and the grandson of Christian I. Kristian married Elizabeth of Austria on August 12, 1515. They had six children but none of them succeeded him as king. Kristian was deposed as Danish king in 1523 and in 1546 relinquished all claims to the throne.


Until 1521, Kristian's regime was strongly allied, funded and dependent on Pope Leo X and Maximilian I (German-Roman emperor) (Kristian was also his Duke of Holstein) in a plan to take control of Sweden politically and economically. In the background was an economic power struggle over the mining and metal industry in Bergslagen, which added greater financial resources to military capacity, but also strong dependencies, to a conflict that lasted for a long time over the Kalmar Union. An economic struggle, where the parties were financed and stood between: Jakob Fugger (early extremely rich industrialist in the mining and metal industry on the continent) allied with those of Fugger economically dependent Pope Leo X (whose husband was Gustaf Trolle) and Maximilian I (German-Roman emperor) in alliance with Christian II where his marriage in 1515 with the covenant of Elizabeth of Austria (1501–1526). The Hanseatic League, which in practice had a trade monopoly in Sweden and Bergslagen, allied with Sten Sture the younger and later Gustav Vasa, who made them strongly dependent on the Hanseatic League. very large dowry, for Christian II's wife, funded by Fugger. Fugger later withdrew from the project in 1521 after losing in Gustav Vasa's war of liberation in the Battle of Västerås (and thus control of shipping from Bergslagen). Thus, Fuggers' former ally Christian II lost the resources to win the war against Gustav Vasa, but also lost the resources to maintain his position in Denmark (against Frederick I of Denmark in 1523). The sharp increase in funding and financial dependence meant that the parties could sometimes keep up with expensive mercenaries, which explains the fluctuations in power and rapidly changing situations during the procedure. The costs were significant and after Kristian III's victory with Gustav Vasa's Sweden as an ally in 1536 in the Count's Feud in Scania and Denmark, the money was gone, Christian II, the Catholic Church and Hansa's influence in the Nordic countries was over. Followed by the Reformation in Denmark-Norway and the Reformation in Sweden, the nationalization of the Catholic Church with the Lutheran clergy as royal civil servants, which financed the new much more independent Gustav Vasa and Christian III regimes.


Growing up

Christian II was born on July 1, 1481 at Nyborg Castle as the son of King Hans and Kristina of Saxony. Kristian was tall and intelligent. He received a good upbringing, but was very unruly during his upbringing. For a short time he stayed in the home of the respected merchant Hans Bogbinder in Copenhagen and enjoyed early contact with bourgeois circles. As early as 1487, Kristian was elected successor to the throne by the Danish parliament, in 1489 by the Norwegian and in 1497 by the Swedish. In 1502, in an attack on Sweden, he showed great bravery and skill as a leader (he captured Älvsborg and Öresten's fortress). In 1506 he was sent as governor to Norway, was a capable but autonomous regent and in 1508 suppressed by harshness an uprising that broke out there. In Bergen he became acquainted in 1507 or 1509 with the Dutchwoman Sigbrit Willomsdotter and her beautiful daughter Dyveke Sigbritsdatter, who immediately became his mistress, and later followed him to Denmark. Throne entry and first river

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