December 7, 2021

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba (Spanish: República de Cuba), is an island nation in the Caribbean. The state of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, Isla de la Juventud and several archipelagos. Havana is the capital of Cuba and its largest city. The second largest city is Santiago de Cuba. North of Cuba is the United States (150 km away), the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands are in the northeast, Mexico is in the west (210 km away), the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are in the south, and Haiti and the Dominican Republic are in the southeast. After the Revolution, Cuba developed a (officially Communist) one-party state from 1965 and the 1976 constitution was modeled on the Soviet model. Cuba remained a Spanish colony until the Spanish-American War of 1898, after which it was briefly administered by the United States until it gained nominal independence in 1902. The fragile republic endured an increasingly radical policy and social conflict, and despite efforts to strengthen its democratic system, Cuba ended up in a dictatorship under President Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Growing unrest and instability led to Batista's ousting in January 1959 of the July 26 movement, which then established a socialist government under Fidel Castro. Since 1965, the country has been ruled as a one-party state by the Communist Party. Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean, and with over 11 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous after Hispaniola, albeit with a much lower population density than most countries in the region. Cuba is a multi-ethnic country. Its peoples, culture and customs come from various origins, including the Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves, a close relationship with the Soviet Union during the Cold War, and the proximity to the United States. Cuba ranks relatively high in health and education statistics, with a Human Development Index of 0.778 in 2018. According to data presented to the UN, Cuba was the only nation in the world in 2006 that met the World Wide Fund for Nature's definition of sustainable development, with an ecological footprint which is less than 1.8 hectares per inhabitant, 1.5 hectares, and a Human Development Index of over 0.855.


Before the Spanish discovery of America, Cuba was inhabited by American tribes. In 1492, Christopher Columbus came to Cuba during his first voyage. He returned on his second trip. In 1511, the Spaniards founded their first city in Cuba and defeated the locals in a three-year war. Havana was founded in 1514. Cuba became an important colony in the Spanish Empire. During the 19th century, colonial rule was shaken by unrest. An initially hopeless uprising, which cost the life of national hero José Martí, was turned into a military victory over Spanish forces after US intervention. Cuba gained independence on May 20, 1902 through the care of Theodore Roosevelt, while the US government through the so-called The plate supplement ensured far-reaching powers in both the island's domestic and foreign policy. The country's first president, Thomas Estrada, was ousted by American intervention in 1906, but the country's independence was restored three years later. Chronic political unrest stabilized after the independence fighter Gerardo Machado was elected to the presidency in 1925, but after he was denied re-election, the government developed towards a pure dictatorship. Communist Party leader Julio Antonio Mella was assassinated in Mexico in 1929, an act attributed to Cuban agents. Machado fled the country to the Bahamas after the 1933 riots, and in the suites following the fall of the regime, a five-member council appointed the radical doctor Ramón Grau San Martin as president, but he was deposed the following year by the new army chief, mulatto Fulgencio Batista. Batista's populist regime, working closely with the US Ambassador

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