The Cuban Revolution

Article

December 6, 2021

The Cuban Revolution is called the rebel movement, led by Fidel Castro, who carried out a revolution in Cuba in the 1950s. The uprising lasted from 1953 to 1959 and ended in connection with the revolutionaries taking power over the country on January 1, 1959, from the then incumbent dictator President Fulgencio Batista. The leading figures of the revolution also include the Argentine Che Guevara, Camilo Cienfuegos, and Raúl Castro.

Motif of the Revolution

After decades of freedom struggle, Cuba became independent from Spain in 1898. The United States helped the Cuban freedom fighters towards the end of the war, but some believe that the war had already been won when the United States intervened. The United States seized power in Cuba by initially appointing puppet presidents under Washington. In addition, an agreement was signed that the United States had the right to intervene in Cuba's domestic political affairs and that the United States had the right to have a naval base in the Provincia de Guantánamo. When the United States introduced an alcohol ban in 1919, tourist flows to Cuba increased markedly. Americans bought Cuban land and started pubs, casinos and brothels in Havana. The North American economic power in Cuba was strengthened. A mafia was formed, funded in part by liquor smuggling to Florida. A general dissatisfaction with the Americans arose. It was against this background that Fidel Castro, who grew up in Cuba, began his political career. During his youth, Castro had been taught by Spanish conservative Jesuits who could not accept that the United States had taken Cuba from Spain. Castro was thus brought up as an anti-American. He quickly became one of the leading figures in the University of Havana's anti-imperialist radical currents. But it was not just Castro's upbringing that influenced his ideas. The environment in general influenced his thinking. At this time, the United States was clearly present in Cuba. US per capita investment was three times greater in Cuba than in the rest of Latin America. From Cuba's side, 70% of exports went to the United States. As a result, Cuba's leaders could not implement reforms even if they wanted to because of economic pressure from the United States. It can be said that there were three major needs in Cuba that the US-friendly government and the United States stood in the way of. Cuba needed to develop, gain national independence and a government that looked after the interests of the people. When the former president Fulgencio Batista regained power in Cuba through a rapid coup in 1952, Castro's plans to peacefully become the supreme ruler of Cuba were crushed. He then believed that the only way to bring about change in Cuba was through revolution.

Implementation of the Revolution

To remove Batista from the presidency, Fidel Castro, now a law graduate, initially tried to legally annul the government. It failed. Instead, he turned to his conspirators and they decided to start an uprising in Cuba. Moncada, a military establishment outside Santiago de Cuba, was targeted for an attack. They attacked the garrison on July 26, 1953, but the attack was fatally unsuccessful. Most of the attackers were captured. Despite the censorship of Cuba, copies of the trial were spread and the words "La historia me absolverá" (History should acquit me) became known throughout Cuba. However, some rebels, including Castro, were released after only three years, twelve years before their allotted release date. This was because Batista tried to increase popular support by giving a general amnesty to political prisoners. Immediately after his release, Fidel Castro and some of his followers went to Mexico to prepare for a new operation. The new movement was called the "July 26 movement" after the date of the failed Moncada attack. The group was to be trained in guerrilla warfare, but had to practice in secret because they were guarded by the Mexican government, FBI agents from

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