Landborgen in Helsingborg is a so-called abrasion slope, which stretches somewhat indented along the Öresund coast, from Hittarp to Ramlösadalen. Landborgen is the name of the steepest part of Helsingborgsryggen, where it meets the Sound. It got its name from the fact that it forms a natural castle, protected by the steep sides.
In Helsingborg, the land castle rises between 20 and 40 meters above sea level, which is lowest at the ends: 12 meters above sea level at Ramlösa and 8 meters above sea level at Pålsjö and north. On the crest of the country castle are, for example, the St Nicolai house, Kärnan, Vikingsberg, Henry Dunkers Villa Hevea and the former hostel Villa Thalassa. The northern part is dominated by patrician villas, among other places located in the district of Tågaborg. Farthest to the north is Sofiero Castle.
The Landborg promenade has been laid out along the crest of Landborgen. This extends from Rååns estuary in Öresund, Raus church and Ramlösa well park in the south, via Gåsebäcken and Folkets park to Slottshagen, Öresundsparken and Margaretaplatsen in the center of Helsingborg, further north to Pålsjö forest and Sofiero castle, with a breathtaking view of the Öresund. On the etymology behind the word "landborg", see landborg.
Landborgen's bedrock is a unique mixture for Sweden of shifted layers of sandstone and shale with elements of coal, which in Sweden's geology only exists in Scania, especially in the northwestern parts. In some places, the sandstone has a very yellow-brown tone that comes from a high iron content, which means that Helsingborg's groundwater becomes very iron-rich.
The bedrock belongs to the so-called Rät-lias formation, which arose during the period of the Triassic known as "Rät", as well as the older part of Jura called "Lias". During this time, the landscape in the area changed drastically. At this time, Scandinavia was roughly where North Africa now stands and was a desolate desert. The continental plates separated and an ocean had formed between the North American continent and the Eurasian. Therefore, the environment had changed to a swampy delta area with a hot and humid climate. Large lizards inhabited the area and the greenery consisted largely of fern and freckle forests, whose decaying remains formed the coal found in the bedrock. Current Denmark had been completely flooded by water and Skåne was therefore located in a coastal zone, where the northwestern parts were alternately under water. This created a shift between sand and clay which was compressed into the sandstone and shale mixture with elements of coal that we see today.
For several hundred million years, the Scanian bedrock was under strong pressure from the mountain range folds that were taking place in southern Europe. Around the time the Alps were formed, the bedrock in the Helsingborg area cracked and faults formed at the cracks. Landborgen consisted of a number of independent and incoherent faults until the ice sheet melted away, which meant that the water level was at least 30 meters higher than it is today. The water eroded the various faults together into a long and continuous fault slope. As the weight from the land ice disappeared, the land castle also began to rise out of the water with the formation of the 16 km wide so-called Helsingborg ridge.
A large number of ravines and valleys cut through the country castle. These arose when the land ice melted 13,000 years ago. At that time, there was an arctic climate in the area where there was permafrost in the bedrock down to great depths. In the summers, the top layer of land thawed, about 1-2 meters down the rock, which allowed water to flow out into fracture zones in the rock and made it very waterlogged. When the water then froze to ice again, it expanded out and burst the rock. This process was repeated for several years and at the places shattered