Pakistan

Article

January 18, 2022

Pakistan, formally the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (English: Islamic Republic of Pakistan; Urdu: اسلامی ﺟﻤﻬﻭرﻳہ پاکستان), is a country in South Asia. In July 2016, Pakistan was the sixth most populous country in the world with a population of approximately 193 million. It borders India to the east, China to the north, Afghanistan to the northwest and Iran to the west. In the south, the country has a coast facing the Arabian Sea, and shares a sea border with Oman. There has been agriculture in the area for a very long time and around 2600–1500 BC. it was dominated by the Indus culture. From 1858 present-day Pakistan became part of British India and in 1947 the country became independent. The majority of the inhabitants are Muslims, which is reflected in the country's formal name.

History

Prehistory

The geographical area of ​​today's Pakistan has been the site of agricultural cultures for several millennia. The earliest archaeological evidence is stone tools from the Sonic culture during the early Stone Age. From the middle of the 2000s BC. and an estimated 1000 years ahead, the Indus culture dominated with its cities, located on the Indus River, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. This culture is believed to have significantly influenced the later immigrant Indo-Americans. [Source needed]

Antiquity

The Vedic civilization (1500-500 BC), created by the Indians, laid the foundation for Hinduism, which became deeply rooted even in present-day Pakistan. Thereafter, the area was ruled by a number of great empires, such as the Achaemenid Persian Empire from about 519 BC, then Alexander the Great's empire from 326 BC. After the death of Alexander the Great, his kingdom was immediately divided and today's Pakistan was ruled by two of his generals, the satraps Eudemus and Peithon, but was conquered in the 310s BC. of the Mauritian Empire. After Ashoka's death, the Mauritian Empire collapsed around 185 BC. whereupon Demetrius I of Bacteria invaded and founded the Indo-Greek Empire. After the collapse of this kingdom around the year 10, the Indo-Scythian dynasty took control of the region and was succeeded by the Kushans until about the year 400.

Medieval and early modern times

The Palarit (700s to 12th centuries) was the last Buddhist kingdom to rule today's Pakistan along with the rest of the Indian subcontinent. The Arab army commander Muhammad ibn Qasim conquered the area in 711, which in today's official historiography marks the basis of Pakistan. After the Islamic conquest, Islam spread in the region and Sufi missionaries helped to convert most of the population. This was followed by a long line of Muslim dynasties and empires, not least during the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526), ​​before the Mughal Empire took control, leading to an Indo-Persian cultural golden age. During the 18th century, the Mughal Empire gradually weakened and in the vacuum of power, the Sikh Empire was formed, which during the first half of the 19th century was conquered by the British East India Company, whose colonial rule also extended to present-day Pakistan.

Modern time

From the beginning of the 19th century, much of present-day Pakistan was occasionally disputed between the British East India Company and the Afghan Durrani Empire, but the British consolidated their new territories. When the British Indian colony was to be decolonized, the British chose to divide it along rough religious lines, something that had gathered support from the Muslim population and the largest Muslim party, the All India Muslim League, led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who expressed concern about the Hindu majority. dominance. Two independent states were formed in 1947, the Hindu-dominated Dominion India and the majority Muslim Dominion Pakistan. Jinnah became Pakistan's first governor general and the country remained a Commonwealth under the British crown until the abolition of the monarchy in 1956. At the independence in 1947, hundreds of thousands died in the violent riots that broke out then over

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