Svenska

Article

December 1, 2021

Swedish (Swedish) is an East Nordic language spoken by approximately ten million people, mainly in Sweden, where the language has a dominant position as the main language, but also as the one national language in Finland and as the only official language on Åland. In the rest of Finland, it is spoken as a mother tongue, especially in the Finnish-Swedish coastal areas of Ostrobothnia, Åboland and Uusimaa. A small minority of Swedish-speakers are also found in Estonia. Swedish is closely related and to a large extent mutually intelligible with Danish and Norwegian. The other Nordic languages, Icelandic and Faroese, are less mutually intelligible with Swedish. Like the other Nordic languages, Swedish is derived from a branch of Old Norse, which was the language spoken by the Germanic peoples of Scandinavia. National Swedish, or standard Swedish, is the standard language that in Sweden since the 19th century developed from Middle Swedish dialects and was well established at the beginning of the 20th century. The standard Finnish-Swedish language, High Swedish, has its own language preservation body, which, however, strives to keep the difference from Swedish to small. Regional variants with roots in older local dialects are still spoken, even to a lesser extent more distinctive dialects. They are not directly threatened by language death, but have been in decline since the beginning of the 20th century, despite the fact that many are well researched and that their use today is no longer opposed. The most common word order in Swedish is subject-verb-object, although this can vary in certain types of phrases. Swedish morphology has relatively few inflections. There are two grammatical genders and two cases and nouns are also inflected in numerus, singular and plural. The adjectives can also be compared and inflected according to gender, numerus and determination. Definite and indefinite form of nouns are marked mainly by suffixes, endings, and can be complemented by articles. Prosodin, the word melody, contains emphasis and also some tonal features. The Swede has a relatively large number of vowels and is distinguished by a very varied phoneme in the so-called sje sound.

Relationship

Swedish is an Indo-European language that belongs to the North Germanic branch of the Germanic languages. Together with Danish, it belongs to the eastern Scandinavian subgroup, which distinguishes them from the western Scandinavian languages ​​Norwegian, Faroese and Icelandic as well as from Old Gutnian. A more modern division of languages ​​is based on mutual understanding and divides the Nordic languages ​​into a "mainland Scandinavian" group that includes Danish, Norwegian and Swedish and an "Eastern Scandinavian" group that includes Faroese and Icelandic. This development has taken place due to the isolation of Iceland and the Faroe Islands from the other languages ​​and also the strong influence of Low German on Danish, Swedish and Norwegian through German Hanseaticism during the Middle Ages. According to most accepted criteria for mutual understanding language. As a result of the long-standing rivalry between Denmark-Norway and Sweden, which included a long series of wars mainly during the 16th and 17th centuries, as well as the nationalist currents of ideas that were most relevant during the 19th and 20th centuries, the three languages different spelling, vocabulary, grammar and own language authorities. From a linguistic perspective, Danish, Norwegian and Swedish are therefore described primarily as a dialect continuum, a group of closely related dialects of Scandinavian. Several of the national languages' dialects can be something in between different languages, such as the Swedish dialects spoken in parts of Dalarna (Älvdalsmål), Jämtland, Dalsland and Värmland, close to the border with Norway. In Frostvikens parish in Jämtland, Norwegian (Trönderska) is traditionally spoken.

Language geography

Swedish is the statutory main language in Sweden, where it is the mother tongue of approximately 9.2 million inhabitants. Sve

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