The Vietnam War

Article

December 6, 2021

The Vietnam War was a military conflict during the Cold War in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia from November 1, 1955 to the fall of Saigon on April 30, 1975. This war followed the Indochina War and was fought between the South Vietnamese liberation movement FNL and North Vietnam, and the South Vietnamese government and United States with the support of some other anti-communist states. The war ended with North Vietnamese victory and the Vietnam Association under the leadership of the Communist Vietnam Workers' Party from North Vietnam. The conflict had its background in the previous Indochina War during the years 1946–1954, which led to the division of Vietnam along the seventeenth latitude. North Vietnam was ruled by Ho Chi Minh, and in South Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem became president in 1955. During the war years, North Vietnam received support from the Soviet Union and China, while South Vietnam was supported by the United States.

The vagina of war

The escalation

After the Indochina War, democratic elections were planned for 1956, which would provide a basis for the reunification of divided Vietnam. Pending the election, Viet Minh would manage the northern part of the country and the southern part, created by France, would be managed by Bao Dai. Bao Dai was the last emperor of Annam (central Vietnam) and had led a puppet regime during the Japanese occupation. However, the election never ended. Four days before the start of the planned deliberations, President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam made a statement stating that he did not intend to take part in any deliberations, let alone in any election. The reason was, as the US government realized, that his regime would not win an election against Ho Chi Minh, even if the UN and the International Commission of Control were ready to monitor the election. A communist Vietnam saw the United States as a risk that the strategically important Southeast Asia would become communist, according to the domino theory. In violation of the 1954 Geneva Convention, the South Vietnamese Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed with American support in October 1955. Bao Dai was forced to resign in favor of Ngo Dinh Diem, who was installed as president after an election. His regime quickly became unpopular, in part because Diem was a Catholic while the majority of the population was Buddhist. Diem responded to the protests with terror. Thousands of people were imprisoned or killed. In northern Vietnam, the communist government of North Vietnam confiscated the property of private companies and merchants and established a bureaucratically controlled command economy. They also took the initiative to create South Vietnam's national liberation front (in Sweden called FNL after its French abbreviation), an armed guerrilla group in South Vietnam. The United States continued to step up its efforts. At the end of 1961, there were more than 1,500 American soldiers in Vietnam, a year later close to 10,000. Although the increasingly despised Diem was supported by silent American approval in 1963, the South Vietnamese regime continued to weaken. Secret intelligence documents indicate an intention to eventually seek Buddhist or even Thanist alternatives to the presidency.

Tonkinbuktsintermezzot

The so-called Tonkin Bay Intermezzo in the Gulf of Tonkin is often cited as the official starting point for the war. On August 4, 1964, US President Lyndon B. Johnson claimed that a number of North Vietnamese torpedo boats had completely unprovokedly attacked a US warship on international waters in the Gulf of Tonkin. As a result, on August 7, Congress approved the so-called Tonkin resolution, which empowered the president to take the measures he deemed necessary to counter "communist aggression." With this resolution behind him, President Johnson, with the support of his advisers, launched airstrikes on North Vietnam, which in the following months were followed by military escalation with regular US troops. American politicians and the media had l

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