December 3, 2021

Afghanistan (English: Afghanistan; Dari/Pathan: افغانستان‎), officially known as Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan; Pathan: د افغانستان اسلامي امارت‎, Da Afġānistān Islāmī Amārat; Dari: امارت اسلامی افغانستان‎, Imârat-i Islâmī-yi Afġânistân) is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is bordered to the west with Iran. To the south and east it is bordered by Pakistan. To the north, it borders Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. The easternmost part, next to China, has a territory of 652,000 square kilometers. Kabul is the capital and largest city in the country. It has a population of approximately 39 million, most of whom are Pathan, Tajik, Hazara and Uzbek ethnicities. This area has been inhabited by humans for at least 50,000 years, until there was a permanent settlement in the area 9,000 years ago, before gradually developing into the Indus civilization. Oxus Civilization and Helmand Civilization In the 3rd millennium BC, Indo-Aryans moved in. This was followed by the advancement of the Yaz I culture, the Iron Age (about 1500–1100 BC), which is related to the culture mentioned in Avesta, a Zoroastrian scripture. This region fell to Persia in the 6th century B.C. to the Indus River. Alexander the Great invaded the land in the 4th century B.C.E. The Greco-Bactrian Empire was the easternmost tip of Greek civilization. Later this land was conquered by India during the Maurya Dynasty. It has spread Buddhism and Hinduism in this area for many centuries. Lord Kanishka of the Kushan Empire played an important role in the spread of Mahayana Buddhism into China and Central Asia. After that, there was a Buddhist dynasty ruled the land.

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