Ivan IV the Terrible

Article

January 22, 2022

Ivan IV the Terrible (sometimes February, Russian Ivan (John) IV the Terrible) (August 25, 1530, Kolomenskoye near Moscow - March 18 (28) 1584 (15840328), Moscow) - Grand Duke of Moscow since 1533, the first Moscow king since 1547. He came from the younger branch of the Rurik family. Son of the Grand Duke of Moscow Vasily III and Elena Vasylivna Hlynska, who came from the Ukrainian-Lithuanian family Hlynsky, descendants of the temnik Mamaia. He entered the history of Russia as a very controversial figure: on the one hand - as a reformer and a talented publicist, author of brilliant literary "messages" to various figures, and on the other - as a cruel tyrant and a man with a sick psyche. In the modern Russian Federation he is considered a national hero. During the reign of Ivan the Terrible began to convene the Zemsky Sobors, compiled Sudebnik in 1550. Judicial and administrative reforms have been carried out, in particular elements of self-government at the local level (provincial, zemstvo and other reforms). After the betrayal of Prince Kurbsky, oprichnina was introduced. Under Ivan IV, trade relations were first established with England (1553) and Holland, and the first printing house was founded in Moscow. The Kazan (1552) and Astrakhan (1556) khanates were conquered. In 1558-1583 the Livonian War for access to the Baltic Sea and the stubborn struggle against the protectorate of the Crimean Khan Devlet I Geraya was fought. After the victory in the Battle of Molodyn (1572), the Muscovite state consolidated its rights to the Kazan and Astrakhan khanates, and began the accession of the Siberian khanate (1581). Nominally (from December 4, 1533 to March 18, 1584) he ruled the longest of all Russian monarchs - 50 years and 105 days.

Titles

He was titled "Sovereign of All Russia and Grand Duke of Vladimir, and Moscow, and Novgorod, and Pskov, and Tver, and Perm, and Ugra, and Bulgarian, and others." His partial (abbreviated) title, which is usually quoted, sounds like: "Grand Duke of Moscow, Grand Emperor, by the grace of God, Tsar and Grand Duke" used this title from January 16, 1547 to March 18, 1584, except 1575-1576 years, when the "Grand Duke" was Simeon Bekbulatovich).

Biography

Childhood and adolescence

After the death of his father, three-year-old Ivan remained under the care of his mother, who was his regent. However, instead of for �

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