July 6, 2022

Israel (Heb. יִשְׂרָאֵל‎, Arabic. إِسْرَائِيل‎), official name is the State of Israel (Heb. מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל‎ Medinat Israel, Arabic. دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل‎ Daulat Yisrael) is a state in Western Asia, located on the southeastern coast Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It is bordered by Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan to the east, and Palestine and the Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively, as well as Egypt to the southwest. The country has geographically diverse features within its relatively small area. The country's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although recognition of the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem is limited. The state language is Hebrew, while Arabic has a special status. The population as of January 1, 2021 is 9,291,000 people, the territory is 22,072 km². It ranks 100th in the world by population and 150th by territory. Unitary state, democratic parliamentary republic. It is divided into 6 administrative districts. An industrial country that is dynamically developing. The volume of GDP for 2015 was almost 300 billion US dollars (36 thousand US dollars per person). In the list of countries according to the human potential development index, it is in 18th place in the world: the index is 0.894. The currency is the new Israeli shekel. The independence of the state was proclaimed on May 14, 1948 (January 5, 5708) on the basis of UN General Assembly Resolution No. 181 of November 29, 1947. According to the Declaration of Independence, Israel is a Jewish state. At the same time, Israel is a multinational and democratic state, where, along with Jews, all other religious and ethnic groups, regardless of religion, have equal rights. Israel is distinguished by ethno-cultural diversity. The national composition of the country's population is as follows: 74.7% — Jews, 20.8% — Arabs, 4.5% — others.

Origin of name

During the last three millennia, the word "Israel" has denoted both the Land of Israel (Heb. אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל‎, Eretz Yisrael) and the entire Jewish people. The source of this name is the Book of Genesis, where the patriarch Jacob, the son of Isaac, receives the name Israel after fighting with the angel of God: Scholars differ in defining the meaning of this word. For one