Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

Article

May 19, 2022

The Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Imperator Romanus Sacer) is the title of elected monarch of the Holy Roman Empire. For convenience, the first emperor is Charlemagne, who was crowned Pope Leo III in 800 as emperor of the West. The emperors of the Holy Roman Empire were crowned popes until the 16th century, and the last emperor, Francis II, abdicated in 1806, during the Napoleonic Wars. The word "Roman" in the title of emperor is an expression of the idea of ​​translatio imperii, according to which the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire were the heirs of the emperors of the West, and even the entire Roman Empire. From 1772 to 1835, the title of King of Galicia and Vladimir was added to the full title of Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Official name - Romanorum (Latin Romanorum Imperator), Roman emperor; in German historiography, the Roman-German emperor (Römisch-deutscher Kaiser).

Inheritance of the throne

The succession to the throne of the Holy Roman Empire was accompanied by many features. The imperial throne, through elections, was only partially hereditary. But often the imperial title remained for a long time in one dynasty, and the election required candidates to make concessions to the electorate (so-called - Wahlkapitulationen, elected capitulations). According to the Golden Bull of 1356, the emperor was elected by a Board of seven (electors) and appointed by the ruling emperor. But in 1623, during the Thirty Years' War, the number of electors increased. Formally elected could be any Catholic man. From 1483, the kings of Germany (and therefore the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire) were always representatives of the Habsburg House (with a short break in 1742-1745). Constantly, after 1556, the king assumed the position of elected emperor in order not to make a long trip to Rome.

List

This list includes both crowned and elected emperors. The numbering is given taking into account the kings of Germany.

Carolingians

Charlemagne (800-814) Louis I the Pious (814-840) Lothar I (843-855) Louis II (855-875) Charles II Lysias (875–877) Charles III the Fat (881–887)

Guidesque dynasty

Guy III of Spoleto (891–894) Lambert II of Spoleto (894–898)

Carolingians

Arnulf I K