India

Article

August 13, 2022

India or Bhārat (Hindi भारत, translit. Bhārat), the official name of the Republic of India (English: Republic of India, Hindi भारत गार्वार्क, translit. Bhārat Gaṇarājya) is a country in South Asia. India is the second most populous and seventh largest country in the world, as well as the world's most populous democracy. Surrounded by the Indian Ocean to the south, the Arabian Sea to the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal and Bhutan in the north, and with Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east. In the Indian Ocean, the country is located near Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago. Most of them were hunter-gatherers for a long time, and lived in various forms of isolation, making the region genetically diverse, second only to Africa. Sustainable life arose on the subcontinent in the western reaches of the Indus River basin 9,000 years ago, gradually transforming into the Indus Civilization in the third millennium BC. e. By 1200 BC e. the progenitor of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, spread to India from the northwest, forming the Rigveda language, and starting the culture of Hinduism in India. The Dravidian languages ​​of India were displaced from the northern regions. Around 400 BC e. within Hinduism there was stratification and social rejection in the form of the caste system, as well as Buddhism and Jainism, which proclaimed social orders not related to heredity. Early political consolidations gave rise to the Mauryan and Gupta empires based in the Ganges basin. Their collective era was filled with advanced creativity, but also marked by the decline of the status of women and the incorporation of untouchability into an organized belief system. In southern India, the Middle Kingdoms exported Dravidian languages ​​and written culture to the kingdoms of Southeast Asia. In the early Middle Ages, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism took root on the southern and western coasts of India. Onslaughts of Muslim armies from Central Asia intermittently flooded the northern plains of India, and eventually