August 13, 2022

Italy (ital. Italia [iˈtaːlja] (listen)), the official name is the Italian Republic (ital. Repubblica Italiana [reˈpubblica itaˈljaːna]) is a country in southern Europe consisting of a peninsula separated by the Alps and surrounded by several islands. The country is located in south-central Europe and is considered part of western Europe. A unitary parliamentary republic with its capital in the city of Rome, covering a total area of ​​301,340 km² and bordering by land France to the northwest, Switzerland and Austria to the north, and Slovenia to the northeast, as well as the enclaved microstates of Vatican City, San Marino, and Sovereign Order of Malta. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in Tunisian waters (Lampedusa). The population of the country is about 60 million, which makes it the third largest member state of the European Union. Due to its geographical location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has historically been home to many peoples and cultures. In addition to various ancient peoples scattered throughout the territory of modern Italy, the most common were the Indo-European Italics, who gave the peninsula its name, since antiquity, the Phoenicians and Carthaginians founded colonies mainly on the islands of modern Italy. The Greeks established settlements in the so-called Graecia Magna in Southern Italy, while the Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy, respectively. A tribe of Italics, known as the Latins, formed the Roman Empire in the 8th century BC, which eventually became a republic with government by the senate and the people. The Roman Republic first conquered and assimilated its neighbors on the Italian peninsula, eventually expanding and conquering parts of Europe, North Africa, and Asia. By the first century BC c., the Roman Empire became the dominant force in the Mediterranean as well as a leading cultural, political, and religious center, marking the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italian law, technology, economy, art, and literature underwent rapid development. Italy remained the homeland of the Romans and the metropolis of the empire, the legacy of which can be seen in the worldwide spread of culture, government, Christianity and la