Australia

Article

August 13, 2022

Australia, or the Australian Union, (English Commonwealth of Australia) is an independent federal state located in the Southern Hemisphere on the continent of the same name, which also includes the adjacent large island of Tasmania in the south and numerous smaller ones around, including Norfolk and Lord Hav in the Pacific ocean, the Cocos Islands in India and others. The area of ​​the country is 7,688,287 km², it is the 6th place among the countries of the world and the first among the countries of Oceania. Australia in the north is separated from Papua New Guinea by the waters of the Torres Strait, by the waters of the Timor and Arafura seas - from Indonesia and East Timor; in the east - by the waters of the Coral Sea from the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Caledonia (France); in the southeast — by the Tasman Sea from New Zealand. The population of the country is 25.25 million people. Australia is a country of immigrants, who make up 26% of the population, according to which the country ranks 9th in the world. The capital of Australia - the city of Canberra - is located in the specially created Australian Capital Territory. The largest city is Sydney. The country is highly urbanized. The population is distributed very unevenly: most of it lives in the southeast, in the states of Victoria and New South Wales. About 60% of the population lives in the largest cities and their agglomerations: Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide. The average population density is 3.3 people per km², which is the lowest in the world. For a hundred years, the country has preserved and stably supports a liberal-democratic political system. Australia is a constitutional monarchy headed by the British monarch (Elizabeth II), represented by the Governor-General (Peter Cosgrove). The executive power in the country is represented by the cabinet headed by the prime minister (Scott Morrison), appointed by the bicameral parliament. The federation consists of 6 states, which have their own governments and parliaments, and 10 separate territories. Australia is the main military and political power in the region, the 13th largest military spender in the world. Australia is a member of the United Nations (UN), the Group of Twenty (G20), the Commonwealth of Nations, the Pacific Pact on Security (ANZUS), the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Pacific Islands Forum (PIF), the World