August 8, 2022

Motorway, also highway (from French chaussée < Nat.-Latin (via) calciāta — "lime-strengthened road") - a part of the territory, in particular in a settlement (street), intended for the movement of vehicles and pedestrians, with all located on it by structures (bridges, overpasses, overpasses, overground and underground pedestrian crossings) and means of traffic management, and is limited in width by the outer edge of sidewalks or the edge of the right-of-way. This term also applies to specially constructed temporary roads, in addition to arbitrarily rolled roads (tracks). It provides domestic and international transportation of passengers and cargo, connects settlements and separate objects and is a component of the unified transport system of the state.[source?]


Motor roads must ensure year-round movement of motor vehicles at high speeds with a minimum of construction and transport costs and the necessary safety and convenience of movement. The basis of a highway as an engineering structure is the subsoil, which aligns the natural relief of the earth's surface. The road surface is made of cement concrete, asphalt concrete, cobblestone with joints filled with cement mortar, etc. In the transverse direction of the surface of the ground surface and the road surface, a double-sloped profile is provided, and on steep curves - a single-sloped curvilinear (bend). When roads cross rivers, canals, streams, and other obstacles, bridges or culverts, culverts, and tunnels are built. Overpasses are built for the safety of traffic on highways that intersect with each other or with the railway. In the first case, exits and entrances to roads in both directions are created. Traffic safety is also achieved by: increasing the width of the carriageway and the radius of the road curves, reducing its longitudinal slope, arranging a separate lane between opposite directions of traffic, equipping the road with signs and surface markings. Snow protection and decorative tree plantings are created along the highways. Bus stations, gas stations, service stations (small car repairs), bus stops, etc. are being built on major highways. Motor roads, road and transport systems