English

Article

January 22, 2022

English (English) is a language belonging to the West Germanic subgroup of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by the inhabitants of early medieval England. Named after the English, one of the ancient Germanic peoples who migrated from England, a peninsula on the Baltic Sea, and later - in the territory of Great Britain, named after them - England. Living languages ​​closest to English include Scottish, followed by Lower Saxon and Frisian. Although English is related to German, its vocabulary has been greatly influenced by Old Norse and Latin, as well as Old Norse. English has evolved over 1400 years. The oldest forms of English, a group of West Germanic (Ingwian) dialects brought to Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century and subsequent changes by Norse-speaking Viking settlers from the 8th and 9th centuries, are collectively called Old English. Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England; it was a period when English absorbed the rich vocabulary of French and Latin through Old French, in particular, its Old Norse dialect. Early modern English originated in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press in London, the printing of the King James Bible and the beginning of the Great Shift of Vowels. Modern English has spread around the world since the 17th century under the influence of the British Empire and the United States. Through all types of print and electronic media in these countries, English has become the leading language of international discourse and lingua franca in many regions and professional contexts such as science, navigation and law. Modern English grammar is the result of a gradual shift from the typical Indo-European pattern of dependent marking with rich inflectional morphology and relatively free word order to a predominantly analytical pattern with little inflection and a fairly fixed subject - predicate - a direct addition to word order. Modern English relies more on auxiliary verbs and word order

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