Antarctica

Article

July 5, 2022

Antarctica (from the Greek. αντι — against and the Greek. αρκτικος — northern, "opposite to the Arctic") is a continent in the Southern Hemisphere around the geographic South Pole, covering approximately 10% of the Earth's landmass. The total area is 13,900,000 km², without shelf glaciers - 12.6 million km². It is washed by the waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. Since 2000, the waters surrounding Antarctica south of 60°S. sh., according to the decision of the International Hydrographic Organization, it is called the Southern Ocean. Antarctica has 90% of the world's ice reserves, 70% of fresh water on Earth is concentrated. In Antarctica is the pole of cold, as well as the points of the lowest relative air humidity on the planet and the most intense solar radiation.

Geography

Geographical division

The territory of Antarctica is divided into geographical areas and regions that were discovered by different travelers. The area explored and named after the discoverer (or other persons) is called "earth". List of lands of Antarctica: Adele's land Land of Alexander I Victoria Land Land of William II Land of George V Graham's Land Kemp's land Queen Elizabeth Land Queen Maud's land Queen Mary's Land Coates Land McRobertson Land Mary Bird Land Palmer's land Princess Elizabeth Land Wilkes Land Land of Edward VII Ellsworth Land Land of Enderby In addition, South Orkney, South Shetland Islands, Balleny and Berkner Islands belong to Antarctica. The northernmost point of the continent is Cape Prime Head

Terrain

Antarctica is the highest continent on Earth, the average height of the surface of the continent above sea level is more than 2000 m, and in the center of the continent it reaches 4000 meters. 99.5% of the surface is covered by continental ice up to 4776 m thick (average thickness 1880 m), which rises to 4010 m (on average up to 2040 m), under which the continental relief is hidden and only 0.3% (about 40 thousand km ² ) its areas are free from ice — mainly in West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains: islands, areas of the coast, so-called oases and separate ridges and mountain peaks (nunataks) rising above the ice surface. The Transantarctic Mountains, crossing almost the entire continent, divide Antarctica into two parts - West Antarctica and East Antarctica, which have different slopes�