Beketov Mykola Mykolayovych
January 22, 2022
Beketov Mykola Mykolayovych (born 1 (13) January 1827 (18270113), Alferivka (Nova Beketovka), Penza Province, Russian Empire - November 30 (December 13, 1911), St. Petersburg, Russian Empire) - Ukrainian and Russian chemist, member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (since 1886). He was born into a noble family (his father was a former naval officer). After graduating from the 1st St. Petersburg Gymnasium (1844) he entered the Department of Natural Sciences of the Faculty of Philosophy of St. Petersburg University. Two years later he transferred to the University of Kazan and in 1849 received the degree of Candidate of Natural Sciences. He worked at the University of Kharkiv at the Department of Chemistry (1855-87, from 1859 - Professor), at the same time he became acquainted with the methods of teaching chemistry at universities in England, France and Germany (1858). He defended his doctoral dissertation ("Studies on the phenomena of displacement of some metals by others", 1865), where he set out his theory of metal displacement, established a number of metal activities, gave a formulation (very close to modern) of the law of acting masses, described his method of metal reduction . In the same year he first began to read physical chemistry as an independent discipline. During the "Kharkiv period" he published more than 80 scientific works, founded the Kharkiv School of Physical Chemistry. He carried out thermochemical research, the purpose of which was to reveal the nature of the forces of chemical affinity. Among the thermochemical studies, the main ones are the determination of the heat of formation of alkali metal oxides and the study of the dynamics of chemical phenomena. In 1864 he organized the Department of Physical Chemistry at Kharkiv University, where from 1865 for the first time as an independent scientific discipline he systematically taught a course in physical chemistry. Conducted extensive thermochemical research, which aimed to reveal the nature of the forces of chemical affinity. Among Beketov's thermochemical studies, the main ones are the determination of the heat of formation of alkali metal oxides and the study of the dynamics of chemical phenomena. In 1877 he was elected a corresponding member, and in 1886 an academician of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. In 1886 he moved to St. Petersburg and worked at the academy. chem. laboratory, taught at the Women's Higher Courses. President of the Russian Physical and Chemical Society. One of the initiators of the public library in Kharkov, T.