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Bertolt Brecht (German: Bertolt Brecht; February 10, 1898, Augsburg, Bavaria - August 14, 1956, Berlin) was a German playwright and poet. Received international recognition for his work. He is considered the founder of the epic ("dialectical") theater.
Member of the World Peace Council. International Stalin Prize "For Strengthening Peace Between Peoples" (1954).
He was born in a wealthy bourgeois family. Graduated from the University of Munich.
He began his literary activity in 1918.
1920s — worked as a theater director. Developed the concept of innovative drama and successfully implemented it in a number of plays. B. Brecht and Helena Weigel, who brilliantly played leading roles in his dramas, became celebrities.
Starting from the second half of the 1920s, a break in Brecht's creative development began to emerge, and this break covered all levels of his spiritual life. He studied the works of Karl Marx, finding in them a rationally (moreover, economically and politically) reasoned basis for his own rebellion against capitalism, as well as a positive, in his opinion, program for the transformation of society and art. He became close to the CPN and became involved in the corresponding propaganda, thus repeating the path of many vanguardists, who started with a total denial of the "old world", but came to affirm a new totalitarian regime.
His plays of those years are marked by the influence of expressionism. Brecht developed the theory of "epic theater", which aimed to educate advanced consciousness. Based on this theory, he staged the play "Mothers" (1932) and others based on Maxim Gorky's novel of the same name.
1933-1948 - was in exile outside Germany. In those years, he wrote works directed against militarism and Nazism ("Three-penny novel", 1934; "Teresa Carrar's rifles", 1937; plays: "Mother Courage and her children", 1938; "Life of Galileo", 1939; "Fear and despair in the Third Empire", 1939; "Schweik in the Second World War", 1944, etc.).
Brecht's talent, disgraced in his homeland, found recognition abroad. The number of his fans has increased; his plays were successfully performed on the stages of Paris, Amsterdam, and Copenhagen. But even in comfortable Denmark, he felt psychological pressure. After all, the Danish Nazis from time to time published lists with the names of the most famous German emigrants, and the Danish police constantly inform