Battle of Bannockburn
The Battle of Bannockburn (English: Battle of Bannockburn) is one of the most important battles of the Anglo-Scottish wars of the XIII-XVI centuries, which took place on June 23-24, 1314 near the village of Bannockburn near the river of the same name. The defeat of the English army at Bannockburn ensured the restoration of Scottish independence.
Military action before battle
The successful actions of the King of Scotland Robert I Bruce in 1309-1312 to liberate the northern and western parts of the country from the English occupation made it possible to move to the siege of the large cities of lower Scotland. In 1313, the commanders of the Scottish forces, James Douglas and Thomas Randolph, knocked out the English garrisons from Roxborough and Edinburgh. In the spring of 1314, the army of King Robert I laid siege to Stirling Castle, the most important strategic point in western Scotland. The English governor of Stirling, Philip Mowbray, agreed to surrender the castle to the Scots if the siege was not lifted by 24 June 1314. King Edward II of England immediately began preparations for a new invasion of Scotland. However, in the context of the conflict with the English magnates, he failed to attract significant military units of the Lords-Ordainers to the campaign. Nevertheless, the 25,000-strong English army under the command of King Edward II entered Scotland and marched unhindered to Stirling.
Positions of the parties. Composition of troops
On June 23, British troops reached the Bannockburn River a few kilometers south of Stirling. The Scottish army led by King Robert I was stationed on the wooded hills surrounding the road. The number of Scots troops (according to various estimates - from 5 to 10 thousand men) was much inferior to the English army, but they were advantageously located and led by experienced commanders: King Robert I, Edward Bruce, James Douglas and Thomas Randolph.
The army of the Scottish king, like the army of his predecessor William Wallace, consisted mainly of infantry armed with spears, and was divided into three large units. The vanguard was commanded by Thomas Randolph. The king himself had a squad of 500 horsemen. The army was gathered from all over Scotland: it included knights, burghers, and merchants - all who were able to purchase arms and armor. There was a detachment in the Scottish army