Bulgaria

Article

May 25, 2022

Bulgaria (Ukrainian: Болгарщина, Bulgarian: България), official name: Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Република България) is a state in Southeastern Europe, located in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula, occupying 22% of its territory. It is bordered on the north by Romania along the Danube, on the south by Greece and Turkey, and on the west by Serbia and northern Macedonia. In the east it is washed by the Black Sea. The capital and largest city is Sofia. Other large cities: Plovdiv (382 thousand), Varna (365 thousand), Burgas (226 thousand) Ruse (167 thousand). The area is 110.9 thousand km2, which makes it the 16th largest country in Europe and the largest in the Balkans. The total length of the state border is 2,245 km, of which 1,181 km are land, 686 km are river, and 378 km are sea. The official language is Bulgarian, the currency is the lev. One of the earliest cultures in modern Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karan culture, which dates back to 6500 BC In the 6th-3rd centuries BC, the region was a battlefield for the Thracians, Persians, Celts and Macedonians; stability came when with the conquest of the region by the Roman Empire in 45 AD. The Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire lost part of these territories to the occupying Bulgarian horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgarians founded the first Bulgarian kingdom in 681 AD. BC, which dominated most of the Balkans, and significantly influenced Slavic cultures, creating the Cyrillic alphabet. The kingdom lasted until the beginning of the 11th century, when it was conquered and dismantled by the Byzantine Emperor Basil II. As a result of the successful Bulgarian uprising of 1185, the second Bulgarian kingdom was created, which reached the peak of its development during the reign of Ivan Asen II (1218-1241). After numerous grueling wars and feudal strife, the kingdom disintegrated in 1396, and its territories came under the rule of the Ottoman Empire for the next five centuries. After the fall of Ottoman oppression as a result of the Russo-Ottoman War of 1877-78, the Third Bulgarian State was formed. Many ethnic Bulgarian groups remained outside it, leading to several conflicts with neighbors and alliances with Germany in both world wars. In 1946, Bulgaria became a one-party socialist state and part of the Eastern Bloc under the leadership of