British East India Company
The British East India Company (English: East India Company) is an English private company trading with the countries of the East Indies and China, which existed from 1600 to 1858.
In 1600, according to the charter of Queen Elizabeth, the East India Company was founded, which received the monopoly right to trade with East India.
The company had a great influence on the life and political decisions of the entire British Empire and played an important role in its creation.
Former employees of the company, having earned a lot of money for those times, after retiring from business, usually became very rich and influential people in the British Empire, large landowners, received titles of nobility, passed into the English Parliament, lobbying the interests of the company.
In addition, the company paid a large salary to the military and officials of the British colonies with its own funds, thus ensuring its own interests. There are many references to this in various books, both scientific and artistic.
The activities of the British East India Company in India began in 1612, when Jahangir allowed the establishment of a factory in Surat.
In 1612, the company's armed forces inflicted a serious defeat on the Portuguese in the Battle of Suva. In 1640, the local ruler of Vijayanagara allowed the establishment of a second factory in Madras. In 1647, the company already has 23 factories in India.
In 1687, the headquarters of the Company in Western Asia was moved from Surat to Mumbai. The company tried to obtain trade privileges by force, but lost, and was forced to ask the Great Mogul for mercy. In 1690, the settlement of the company was founded in Calcutta, after the appropriate permission of the Great Mughal. The expansion of the Company to the subcontinent began. At the same time, the same expansion took place by a number of other European companies — Dutch, French and Danish.
In 1757, in the Battle of Plessis, the troops of the British East India Company, led by Robert Clive, defeated the troops of the Bengal ruler Siraj-ud-Daula. After the victory at Buxar (1764), the company received the right to rule Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
The Anglo-Mysore Wars of 1766–1799 and the Anglo-Maratha Wars of 1772–1818 established the company's dominance south of the Sutlej River.
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