Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine

Article

July 5, 2022

The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (VRU) is the only legislative body of the state power of Ukraine, which has a collegial structure and consists of four hundred and fifty People's Deputies of Ukraine, elected for a term of five years on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine is the only body of legislative power authorized to adopt laws. The powers of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine are exercised by joint activities of people's deputies of Ukraine at meetings of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine during its sessions. The powers of people's deputies of Ukraine are determined by the Constitution and laws of Ukraine. People's deputies of Ukraine can voluntarily join factions.

History

Diets and Councils

The traditions of Ukrainian parliamentarism date back to the Old Russian era - the national assembly of a medieval community or city. In the 15th century, during the Lithuanian-Polish era, the practice of holding meetings of the nobility - seyms - appeared on Ukrainian lands. Diets had several levels — from Zemstvo to the national Diet. In the 16th century, under the influence of the traditions of the noble sejm and elements of the Old Russian age, the tradition of holding Cossack councils took shape in Ukraine. Until the beginning of the 17th century, in the Zaporizhzhya Army, the General Military Council was the main body of power among the Cossacks. Along with it, there was a council of elders, in which only the Cossack elite took part, as well as a black council, in which, in addition to the Cossacks, commoners were involved. After the split of the Zaporizhzhya Army into city and grassroots, the All-Army Council continued to be the head of the latter. Instead, city Cossacks usually decided the main issues at the senior or black councils. Black councils were not held in the 18th century. The traditions of noble and Cossack parliamentarism found their continuation in noble assemblies of various levels in the Russian Empire, as well as Cossack councils in the Kuban.

Ukrainian Central Rada

The first predecessor of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine was the Central Council of the Ukrainian People's Republic, formed on March 17, 1917. She began the development of Ukrainian statehood by publishing Universals. IV Universal became the heaviest,