Byzantine Empire

Article

January 22, 2022

The Byzantine Empire, also the Eastern Roman Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Roman Empire, Greek Empire, Roman Empire, Roman Empire) was a late antique and medieval state that emerged in the 39th century. It survived a series of crises and invasions until it was finally destroyed in 1453 by the Ottomans.

Name

The official name of the state, used throughout its history - "Roman Empire" - emphasized the continuity between the Byzantine and Roman empires. The inhabitants of Byzantium, among whom were the ancestors of modern Greeks, South Slavs, Romanians, Moldavians, Italians, French, Spaniards, Turks, Arabs, Armenians and many other modern peoples, called themselves Romans or Romans. It is from this name that the modern self-name of at least two peoples, the Romanians and the Roma, derives. The definition of "Byzantine" is derived from the name of the capital of the empire. Despite the fact that the capital was officially called New Rome, and later - Constantinople, according to ingrained habit, the inhabitants of the city used its ancient Greek name - Byzantium. After the partition of the Roman Empire in mid-395, the western part was conveniently (but unofficially) called the Hesperian Empire (from the ancient poetic definition of "western lands"), and the eastern part with the capital in Constantinople used the adjective "Byzantine" (ie "Byzantine" this word was used, in particular, by the historians of the time, Prisk and Malch. At the same time, the Eastern Roman Empire was not considered a separate state and was officially called Senatus Populusque Romanus. With the fall of Hesperia in 476, the title of emperor was generally retained only by the rulers of Constantinople. Thus, the need even for the informal use of a separate term to denote their state has disappeared. The empire was hereinafter referred to simply as Roman or Roman. The adjective "Byzantine" continued to be used - it is found, in particular, in the writings of Patriarch Photius and in the Court - but often as a synonym for the word "Constantinople". The names Christian and Greek kingdoms are also used in Old Russian and Old Slavic chronicles. The name "Byzantine Empire" is in scientific use

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