James Webb (telescope)

Article

January 20, 2022

Space Telescope. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an American orbital infrared space telescope. The telescope will allow for a wide range of research in astronomy and cosmology, to observe some of the most distant objects and events in the universe, such as the formation of the first galaxies. The project is implemented through international cooperation of 17 countries, led by NASA, with significant contributions from the European and Canadian space agencies. The Goddard Space Flight Center is in charge of development, with Northrop Grumman as the main contractor. Initial name - "Next-generation space telescope" (English-Next-generation space telescope - NGST). In 2002, it was named after NASA's second head, James Webb (1902-1992), who ran the agency from 1961 to 1968. At the end of 2021, the cost of building a telescope was more than 10 billion US dollars. The telescope was successfully launched at 12:20 UTC on December 25, 2021 by the Arian-5 launch vehicle. .

History

Background

Early work to develop Gubble's successor between 1989 and 1994 led to the concept of the Hi-Z telescope, a 4-meter infrared telescope that would operate in orbit in 3 astronomical units. This distant orbit would be beneficial due to less light noise from zodiacal dust. Other early plans included a mission to the NASA NEXUS (Nexus for Exoplanet System Science) predecessor telescope. Correcting the disappointing characteristics of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in the early years of its operation played a significant role in the birth of JWST. In 1993, NASA prepared the Space Shuttle mission to replace the HST camera and upgrade its spectrograph to compensate for spherical aberration in its main mirror. Although the astronomical community has been looking forward to this mission, NASA has warned that such a unique mission is quite risky and that its successful completion is in no way guaranteed. Thus, the Association of Universities for Astronomy in Astronomy (AURA, a consortium of the Space Telescope Science Institute, STSI) formed a committee on

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