John Ronald Reuel Tolkien

Article

July 6, 2022

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, CBE FRSL (English: John Ronald Reuel Tolkien; January 3, 1892 - September 2, 1973) is an English writer, poet, philologist, professor, a classic of world literature of the 20th century and one of the founders of the genre of fiction - high fantasy . He is best known as the author of The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion. Tolkien held the posts of Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Pembroke College, Oxford University (1925-1945), and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature at Merton College, Oxford University (1945-1959). Together with his close friend Clive Lewis, he was a member of the informal literary discussion group "Inklings". On March 28, 1972, he received the title of Commander of the Order of the British Empire from Queen Elizabeth II. After Tolkien's death, his son Christopher produced several works based on his father's extensive records and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion. This book, together with The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, is a collection of fairy tales, poems, fictional stories, artificial languages, and literary essays about the fictional world called Arda and its parts of Middle-earth. In 1951-1955, Tolkien used the word "legendarium" to denote these works. Many authors wrote works in the fantasy genre even before Tolkien, but due to the great popularity and significant attachment to the genre, many consider Tolkien the "father" of modern fantasy literature, which is called, mainly, "high fantasy". In 2008, the British newspaper The Times ranked him sixth in its list of "The 50 Greatest British Writers Since 1945". In 2009, American magazine Forbes named him the fifth highest-earning deceased celebrity. In 2019, the film (biographical drama) "Tolkien" (USA) was released. The director is Dome Karukoski. The image of the writer was embodied by Nicholas Gault.

Biography

Childhood

Arthur Reuel Tolkien (1857–1896) was born in the city of Bloemfontein (at that time the capital of the Orange Free State, now the administrative center of the Republic of South Africa) in the family of a bank employee, an employee of the Bank of Africa (Bank of Africa). ) and his wife Mabel Tolkien, née Suffield (eng. Mabel Tolkien, né