John Ronald Reuel Tolkien

Article

May 19, 2022

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (January 3, 1892 - September 2, 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, professor, classic of twentieth-century world literature, and one of the founders of the genre of fiction, high fantasy. . He is best known as the author of "The Goblin, or There and From There", "The Lord of the Rings" and "Silmarillion". Tolkien was a professor of Anglo-Saxon Rawlinson and Bosworth at Pembroke College, Oxford University (1925-1945), and English language and literature at Merton College at Merton College, Oxford University (1945-1959). Together with a close friend Clive Lewis, he was a member of the informal literary discussion group "Inklings". On March 28, 1972, he received the title of Commander of the Order of the British Empire from Queen Elizabeth II. After Tolkien's death, his son Christopher published several works based on a large number of records and unpublished manuscripts of his father, including "Silmarillion". This book, along with The Goblin and The Lord of the Rings, is a collection of fairy tales, poems, fictional stories, artificial languages, and literary essays about a fictional world called Arda and parts of Middle-earth. From 1951 to 1955, Tolkien used the word "legendarium" to refer to these works. Many authors have written works in the fantasy genre and to Tolkien, but because of his great popularity and considerable commitment to the genre, many consider Tolkien the "father" of modern fantasy literature, which is called mainly "high fantasy." In 2008, the British newspaper The Times ranked him sixth on the list of "50 greatest British writers since 1945". In 2009, the American magazine Forbes named him the fifth dead celebrity with the highest income. In 2019, the film (biographical drama) "Tolkien" (USA) was released. Directed by the Carukoski House. The image of the writer was embodied by Nicholas Golt.

Biography

Childhood

He was born in Bloemfontein (then the capital of the Orange Free State, now the administrative center of the Republic of South Africa) in the family of Arthur Reuel Tolkien, a banker and employee of the Bank of Africa. ) and his wife Mabel Tolkien, Maiden Tolkien, né