The United States Dollar or United States Dollar (US dollar, American dollar; code: USD, symbol: $) is the official currency of the United States and some other countries. Divided by 100 cents ((). Coins of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 cents and 1 dollar and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 banknotes are in circulation. The right to issue is owned by the Federal Reserve, which performs the functions of the central bank in the United States.
The US dollar is the main reserve and most common currency in the world. It accounts for up to two-thirds of the world's national currency reserves. Also, 40 to 60% of financial transactions in the world are calculated in US dollars.
The symbol of the dollar is the Latin letter "S" crossed by a vertical line. It originated in the XVIII century. due to the evolution of the abbreviation "ps" - the designation of peso coins of the Spanish Empire, which were widespread on the American continent from the XVI to XIX centuries. The letters “p” and “s” eventually became written on top of each other and became the symbol “$.” Another popular theory explains the origin of the symbol from the Spanish coat of arms, which was minted on Spanish coins. It contains elements in the form of two Pillars of Hercules intertwined with a strip of fabric in the shape of the letter "S".
The dollar symbol is usually written before the amount, such as $ 200, with no space between the symbol and the numbers. The cent symbol (() is after, for example, 25 (.
In 1518, Jerome Schlick, Count of Bohemia, began minting silver coins called "Joachimsthaler" (German: Joachimsthaler), which translates from German as "Valley of St. Joachim ", where silver was mined for coins. Today "Valley of St. Joachim is known as the city of Jachym in the Czech Republic (then part of the Kingdom of Bohemia). The name Joachimstaler was later abbreviated to Thaler. The circulation of the coin reached different countries and the word spread to other European languages, in Italian it was pronounced as "tallero", Hungarian "tallér", Danish and Swedish "daler", Norwegian "dalar" or "daler", Dutch "daler" or "Daalder", English "dollar". Coins minted in Joachimstaler, later gave the name to coins from other regions that were similar in size and weight. In particular, in 1575 in the Netherlands began minting the coin Levendalder (German Leeuwen-daalder, translated as "Lion's thaler"). Le�