Pavement - the upper part of the pavement; solid, wear-resistant material that is laid out on the roads in order to facilitate the movement and transportation of goods. On modern highways, asphalt concrete, concrete, rubble were used as a pavement in the times of Austria-Hungary and the Russian Empire. Paving was a popular pavement.
Historically, the need for roads arose long ago, with the invention of the wheel or even earlier. The human settlement of areas where certain vital resources were lacking necessitated trade and, consequently, transport. Waterways, such as seas and rivers, were not always available, so there was a need for land transport. As the wheel rolls well on a flat surface, humanity has gradually learned to take care of the roads.
The ancient Romans achieved special success in the construction of roads. The ability to build roads and paths allowed them to build a powerful and great empire. Some of the Roman roads have survived in Britain in good condition to this day. Roman road construction technology was quite complex. Initially, a depth of up to 30 cm was dug in the ground, in which large stones were placed. Then the gaps between the stones were filled with finer gravel, pebbles, gravel. All this was compacted, creating a strong and stable surface that could transport goods to the coast, from where they could be transported to Rome.
Roman roads have existed for a long time, in particular, in the era of feudalism, new stone roads were almost never built.
The need to expand the paved road network arose during the Industrial Revolution.
At the beginning of the XIX century new methods of building stone roads (cobblestones, cobblestones, macadam) were invented.
The general principle of road construction in our time has remained the same, only the materials have changed. The use of hewn stone for paving in the 20s, 30s of the last century became too time consuming (they remained only in difficult conditions, such as on descents, in the area of traffic stops, etc.), and were invented cheaper and technological materials and coatings - asphalt concrete and concrete, which will allow to create in the world wide�