The Second Indo-Pakistani War


August 8, 2022

The Second Indo-Pakistani War was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place in August-September 1965. Beginning with an attempt by Pakistan to raise an insurgency in the Indian part of the disputed state of Kashmir, the conflict soon became a border war between the two states. The fighting did not reveal a winner; the war ended in a draw after the UN intervened.

Kachsky Rann

In the spring of 1965, there was a border conflict between India and Pakistan over the desert areas of the Rann of Kachch. Who provoked the conflict remains unknown, but in March-April armed clashes took place on the border between the border guards of both countries, the armed forces of both countries were brought to full combat readiness and pulled to the border. The conflict did not have time to flare up in full force: Great Britain intervened in it, through the mediation of which the parties concluded a cease-fire agreement on June 30. The dispute over the Rann of Kachch was fully settled on July 4, 1969 by the agreements concluded in Islamabad: Pakistan received 900 km² of territory, although it claimed a much larger area.

The Great War

The events in the Rann of Kachch convinced the Pakistani leadership of the superiority of the national army over the Indian one and inclined it to a forceful attempt to solve the Kashmir problem. As a result of the first Indo-Pakistani war of 1947-1948, the state of Kashmir was divided into two parts, which went to the warring parties. Pakistan had no hope of establishing control over the Indian part of the state. Pakistani special services began sending trained saboteurs to Indian Kashmir, who were supposed to raise an uprising there in early August 1965 and launch a guerrilla war against the Indians. This operation, which was codenamed "Gibraltar", was a complete failure. It became known to the Indians that the saboteurs were coming from the Pakistani part of the state, and on August 15 the Indian army invaded there to destroy the militant training camps. The area was defended by the 12th Pakistani division, which could not hold back the advance of the Indian corps, and very soon the threat of capture loomed over Muzaffarabad, the "capital" of Pakistani Kashmir. In order to ease the enemy's pressure on the 12th division, the Pakistani command deployed on September 1