Typewriter

Article

July 5, 2022

A typewriter is a keyboard machine designed to reproduce characters on paper. The earliest known design of typewriters was patented by Henry Mill in England in 1714. Later, in 1808, the Italian Pellegrino Turri produced a typewriter of his own design for Countess Carolina Fantoni de Fivizzono. Madame Carolina could not write a letter by hand because she suffered from blindness, and the device was needed so that she could correspond with friends. However, this sample of engineering thought did not survive. Evidence of the existence of Turri's typewriter still exists today - the letters of the countess have been preserved. However, the first working typewriter was created in 1867 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, by Christopher Scholes, Carlos Glidden and Samuel Sole. It was the size of a desk, printed only in capital letters, and the result of printing could only be seen at the end of the job, because the paper was placed in the middle of the machine and was inaccessible to the typist for inspection. By 1873, the American gunsmiths Remington and Sons made the first machines for sale under contract, and in 1878 they patented a typewriter with a register switch (uppercase and lowercase letters). The first person to receive a Sholes typewriter was Mark Twain, and he also became the first person in the world to take his publication (The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn) to a publisher in printed form. However, he himself did not type anything - this hard work was performed by a typist, who simply reprinted a handwritten work using the latest device. The last typewriter was produced in 2011 at the Godrej and Boyce factory in Mumbai, which was the world's last typewriter manufacturer. Although twenty years ago, the company produced more than 50,000 typewriters per year, in 2010 only 800 units were sold. In Ukraine, one of the largest printing machine factories in the Soviet Union operated in Kropyvnytskyi - "Drukmash" ("Yatran" brand). All typewriters in the Soviet Union (including the "Ukrainian" Yatranya) were made only with Russian type. To print texts in the Ukrainian language, instead of the letters "i" and "y", the number "1" was printed, and some folk craftsmen soldered the letter "y" from Russian