January 22, 2022

An experiment is a set of experiments united by one system of their formulation, the interrelation of results and the method of their processing. As a result of the experiment, a set of results is obtained, which allows their joint processing and comparison. Experiment - an attempt, an experiment that requires confirmation or refutation, a form of cognition, one of the main methods of scientific research, in which the study of phenomena takes place in appropriately selected or artificially created conditions that ensure the emergence of those processes whose observation is necessary between phenomena. Important characteristics of the experiment are its reliability and validity. The experiment differs from the observation of active interaction with the object under study. Usually, the experiment is conducted as part of scientific research and serves to test the hypothesis, to establish causal relationships between phenomena. Experiment is the basis of an empirical approach to knowledge. Popper's criterion puts forward the possibility of setting up an experiment as the main difference between scientific theory and pseudo-scientific. An experiment is a scientific method of research that is repeated in the described conditions an unlimited number of times and gives identical results.

Types of experiments

There are passive experiment and active experiment.

Passive experiment

In a passive experiment, information about the object under study is accumulated through passive observation, ie information is obtained in the normal functioning of the object. An active experiment is performed using an artificial effect on the object according to a special program. In a passive experiment, there are only factors in the form of input controlled but uncontrolled variables, and the experimenter is in the position of a passive observer. The task of planning in this case is to optimally organize the collection of information and address issues such as the choice of number and frequency of measurements, the choice of method of processing measurement results. Most often, the purpose of passive experiment is to build a mathematical model of the object, which can be considered either as a good or as a poorly organized object. In a well-organized

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