Charles IV (Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire)
May 25, 2022
Charles IV of Luxembourg (Karl IV, Czech: Karel IV; 14 May 1316, Prague - 29 November 1378, Prague) was the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1346; from August 26, 1346, King Charles I of Bohemia (coronation took place on September 2, 1347). Charles was the eldest son and heir of King John I the Blind and Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King Wenceslas II of the Przemysl dynasty. He is the most prominent Czech king and one of the most prominent emperors. He was educated in France, spoke five languages fluently, and excelled in politics, diplomacy, administration, and military affairs. A direct descendant of the Grand Dukes of Kiev. Charles was the first Czech king to be crowned Czech archbishop in Prague. This happened in 1347, although he de facto became king a year earlier. Having founded the New City (Prague), he turned Prague into the largest city in Central Europe. In 1348, Charles founded the University of Prague and began building a new stone bridge across the Vltava. and built Karlstein Castle, a Gothic pearl south of Prague. His international policy strengthened the independence of the Czech Kingdom and expanded its borders. At the same time, the king's attempt to create civil law (Maiestas Carolina) was rejected by the Czech aristocracy. According to a general public poll, Charles IV was recognized as the greatest Czech in history. The real merit of Charles IV before the empire - the establishment of alliances of the Zemstvo peace. Twice he made trips to Italy: in 1354 to be crowned king in Milan and emperor in Rome (1355), the second time in the interests of the pope, for the war with the Visconti of Milan. But he cared more about the development of his ancestral possession, the Czech Republic, than about the empire. He gave many privileges to the nobility in the cities. He encouraged the development of mining and agriculture, made the Vltava navigable on the Elbe, built a new city in Prague (Prague Castle), Hradcany and the famous Charles Bridge in Prague, founded an archbishopric there and in 1348 the first university in the empire (like Paris). Prague has a large number of artists and artisans.