Kara agreement


October 25, 2021

The Kara Agreement of 1921 was a treaty of friendship between the Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian SSRs on the one hand, and Turkey on the other; concluded with the participation of the RSFSR on October 13, 1921 in the city of Kars at a conference convened on September 26 to implement the Moscow Agreement between the RSFSR and Turkey of March 16, 1921.

Basic provisions

The Kara Agreement entered into force on September 11, 1922. It consists of a preamble, 20 articles and 3 appendices. The term of the agreement was not discussed. The agreement was signed by authorized representatives of the governments: Armenian SSR: Askanaz Mravian, People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs; Pogos Makinjiang, People's Commissar for Internal Affairs; Azerbaijan SSR: Beybud Aga Shakhtakhtinsky, People's Commissar for State Control; Georgian SSR: Shalva Eliava, People's Commissar for Naval Affairs; Alexander Svanidze, People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and Finance; Turkey: Kazim Musa Karabekir, Member of the Grand National Assembly from Adrianople, Commander of the Eastern Front; Veli Bey, Member of the Grand National Assembly from Burdur; Mukhtar Bey, former Assistant Secretary of State for Public Works; Memduh Shevket Bey, Plenipotentiary Representative of Turkey in Azerbaijan; Russian SSR: Jakub Ganetsky, Plenipotentiary in Latvia. The Kara Agreement extended to the Transcaucasian Soviet republics the main provisions of the Moscow Agreement, which provided for measures to establish trade relations and regulate financial and economic issues, adding a number of articles - to facilitate border crossing and granting them the right to use pastures located on the other side of the border. The agreement helped resolve the differences between Turkey and the Caucasus caused by attempts by some circles in Turkey to keep the 1920 Alexandropol Treaty in force. On the other hand, the Kara Agreement helped to strengthen Turkey's international position.


According to the agreement, the cities of Kars and Ardagan went to Turkey. Mount Ararat was also in Turkey. This demarcation has become the main reason why modern Armenia does not recognize the Kara Agreement. Denunciation by Georgia The Verkhovna Rada of the Republic of Georgia was authorized to denounce the agreement 21

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