China

Article

July 5, 2022

To this day, two states use the name "China": the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. China, or Hina (simplified: 中国; traditional Chinese: 中國; pinyin: [zhōngguó], [zhungo], "central country") is a cultural region and ancient civilization of East Asia. China is one of the most ancient civilizations, which has absorbed a large number of states and cultures over the course of 6,000 years. The civil war in China after the end of the Second World War caused the division of this region into two states, which continue to use the word "China" in their name. These are the People's Republic of China (PRC), which owns mainland China, the cities of Hong Kong and Macau, and the Republic of China, which controls the island of Taiwan and its adjacent islands. China has a long and almost continuous history of civilization and one of the oldest and most complex writing systems. Until the 19th century, it was one of the most advanced world polities and the main cultural center of East Asia. Chinese influence on neighboring states remains significant to this day. China is the birthplace of many technical inventions that have changed the fate of mankind. Among them are paper, compass, gunpowder, printing. China has enormous economic potential. Growth rates of industrial and agricultural production are very high. In terms of GDP, the country ranks second in the world after the USA, and at the end of the 20th century. she was in seventh place.

Etymology

China has different names in different languages. The most used of them are presented here.

The central country is "Zhungo"

"Zhonggo" (Chinese trad. 中國, spr. 中国, pinyin Zhōngguó) is the self-name of China. The first character "zhong" (Chinese 中) means "center" or "middle". The second character "go" (Chinese trad. 國 or Chinese spr. 国) is interpreted as "country" or "state". Since the 19th century, this name of China has been translated as "Middle State" or "Middle Empire" in Western and domestic historiography. However, such a translation is not entirely correct, since the word "zhongo" long ago denoted the center of the Celestial Empire - the state of the Chinese emperor, that is, China itself. Accordingly, the correct translation is "Central Country" or "Central State". The term "zhongo" has not been used consistently in Chinese history. He had a diverse cultural and p