People's Republic of China

Article

January 22, 2022

The People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國, spr. 中华人民共和国, pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó, Zhonghua Renmin Gunhego) is a country in East Asia. The largest country in the world in terms of population (1,439,323,776 people, the majority of the population - ethnic Chinese, the name - Han); It ranks 3rd in the world in terms of territory, second only to Russia and Canada. China borders Mongolia in the north, Kazakhstan in the northwest, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan in the west, Russia and North Korea in the northeast, and the south in the south. in the west - with India and Nepal, in the south - with Bhutan, Myanmar (formerly Burma), Laos and Vietnam. In the east and southeast, the country is washed by the Yellow, East China and South China Seas. The capital is Beijing. China is a superpower candidate, a permanent member of the UN Security Council, one of the world's leading space powers, has nuclear weapons and the world's largest army in terms of military personnel. In 2010, the Chinese economy overtook the Japanese and became the world's second largest economy in terms of nominal GDP. China is a world leader in the production of most types of industrial products, including car production and consumer demand for them. The world's largest exporter ("factory of the world"). It has the world's largest gold and foreign exchange reserves. China has membership in international organizations such as the United Nations, APEC, the G20, the World Trade Organization (WTO; since December 2001), and the SCO and the BRICS. Since the proclamation of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the ruling party has been the Chinese Communist Party.

Origin of the name

According to the popular version, the word "China" comes from the name "Katai", which, in turn, originated from the name of the Proto-Mongol group of nomadic tribes from Manchuria - the Khitans. In 907, they captured the north of the country and founded their Liao dynasty there. Their place in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries was taken by other nomads, the Zhurzhens and the Mongols, but the ethnonym of their predecessors became established as the toponym of Northern China. Thanks to European merchants, in particular Marco Polo, this name in the form of "Cathay" ("Cathay") came to medieval Western Europe, displacing the Latin "China". From here it passed to the majority Slavic�

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