Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk
Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk (January 10, 1934, Velykyi Zhytyn village, Volyn Voivodeship, Polish Republic, now Rivne Oblast - May 10, 2022, Munich, Germany) - Ukrainian politician, first President of Ukraine since its restoration of independence (1991-1994), Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada Ukraine and the last Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of the USSR (1990-1991). Member of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian SSR of the 10th-11th convocations. People's Deputy of Ukraine (1990-1991 and 1994-2006). Hero of Ukraine (2001), holder of the Order of Freedom, full holder of the Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise. Winner of the Celebrity Awards 2020 in the nomination "Man of the Year".
He was born on January 10, 1934 in a peasant family in the village of Velykyi Zhytyn, Volyn Voivodeship (now Rivne Oblast, Ukraine). His father, Makar Oleksiyovych Kravchuk, served in the Polish cavalry in the 1930s, and later he and Kravchuk's mother (Yuhymiya Ivanivna, maiden name Melnychuk) worked for the Polish settlers. During World War II, Leonid Kravchuk's father died at the front in 1944 and was buried in a mass grave in Belarus. The boy was raised by his stepfather with his mother, who died in 1980 from a stroke in his native village of Zhytyn and was buried there.
He first graduated in Accounting at the Rivne Cooperative College of Economics and Law (now the Rivne Cooperative College of Economics and Law) in the period from 1950 to 1953. He later graduated from Kyiv State University (graduated as a teacher of social sciences, 1958) and the Academy of Social Sciences under the Central Committee of the CPSU (1970). PhD in Economics.
Scientific and political activity (before 1991)
Member of the CPSU since 1958.
In 1958-1960 he taught political economy at the Chernivtsi Financial College. From 1960 to 1967 he was a consultant-methodologist at the House of Political Education, a lecturer, assistant secretary, and head of the propaganda and agitation department of the Chernivtsi Regional Committee of the Communist Party.
From 1967 to 1970 he was a graduate student at the Academy of Social Sciences under the Central Committee of the CPSU (Moscow).
From 1970 to 1980 he was head of the retraining sector of the organizational and party work department of the CPU Central Committee, inspector, assistant secretary of the Central Committee, first deputy head of the department, and from 1980 to 1988 head of the CPU Central Committee's agitation and propaganda department.
In June 1982, the head of the propaganda department and ag