Serfdom

Article

August 8, 2022

Serfdom, or serfdom (also serfdom, or manorial law) (from "serfdoms" - merchant deeds for land, known in Russia since the end of the 15th century), in the narrow sense - a legal system, or a system of legal norms under feudalism, which established the peasant's dependence on the feudal lord and the feudal lord's incomplete ownership of the peasant. It found legal expression in the attachment of the peasant to the land, the right of the feudal lord to the labor and property of the peasant, his alienation both with and without the land, extreme limitation of legal capacity (absence of the peasant of the right to dispose of immovable property, inheritance, appear in court, the right to state oath, etc. ).In a broad sense, it is a system of socio-economic, political and legal relations in a feudal society. A system of agrarian relations under which the landowner is the owner of the land given to the peasant for possession or direct use, and the partial owner of the producer on it. Personal dependence on the feudal lord was, as a rule, established by the state authorities. Serfdom has existed on Ukrainian lands since the days of the Russian State. During the period of the Polish-Lithuanian state (16th century), 20% of the peasants became enslaved. It was established in Transcarpathia at the beginning of the 16th century. The liberation war of the middle of the 17th century. caused the actual disappearance of serfdom in most of the territory of Ukraine. On the Left Bank and Slobozhanshchyna, it was restored by decree of Catherine II of May 3, 1783. In 1861, it was abolished in "sub-Russian" Ukraine and Russia. The abolition of the passport system for peasants in the USSR and the ban on collective farm workers from leaving their plots actually renewed the attachment of peasants to the land from 1930 to the beginning. 1950s with the mandatory condition of working "working days".

Concept

The term "serfdom" was introduced by Ukrainian and Russian journalism in the 19th century, it comes from the word "serfdom", which was used in the Grand Duchy of Moscow from the end of the 15th century to denote documents that established the right of unlimited private property (attachment): the so-called "merchant serfdom" . Under the feudal-serf system, the means of exploitation are the attachment of the worker to the land, the endowment of him with the land. A peasant endowed with land must be personally dependent on the lord ("landlord"). Serfs are people who do not have their x