July 6, 2022

Moscow (Russian: Москва, MFA: [mɐˈskva]) is the capital of Russia, a city of federal importance, the administrative center of the Central Federal District and the center of the Moscow Oblast, which it is not a part of. The most populous city in Russia and its subject — 12,692,466 people (2020), the most populated of the cities located entirely in Europe, the largest Russian-speaking city in the world. Center of the Moscow city agglomeration. Center of the Russian Orthodox Church. The historical capital of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Russian Empire, the Russian Empire (in 1728-1730), Soviet Russia and the USSR. A hero city. Moscow is home to the federal state authorities of the Russian Federation (with the exception of the Constitutional Court), foreign embassies, and the headquarters of most of the largest Russian commercial organizations and public associations. It is located in the west of Russia, on the Moskva River, in the center of the East European Plain, at the confluence of the Oka and Volga rivers. As a subject of the federation, Moscow borders the Moscow and Kaluga regions. Moscow is the most popular tourist center of Russia. The Kremlin, Red Square, the Novodivochi Monastery and the Ascension Church in Kolomensk are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. It is the most important transport hub: the city is served by 6 airports, 10 railway stations, 3 river ports (there is a river connection with the seas of the Atlantic and Arctic Ocean basins). The Moscow Metro has been operating since 1935. Moscow is the sports center of the country. In 1980, the XXII Summer Olympic Games were held in Moscow, and in 2018 the city became one of the hosts of the World Cup in football (including with the help of bribery).


For the first time, the name of the city was mentioned in the Ipatiev Chronicle in 1147 in the form of the accusative case moscow (come to me, brother, come to moscow). According to researchers, the word "Moscow" previously belonged to the Old Russian type of declension with *-ū-, the nominative case of which ended in -ы. For example, *bry (present. eyebrow), bouky (present. letter), *kry (present. blood), any (present. love), svekry (present. mother-in-law), tsrky (present. church) and others. Thus, the oldest form of the toponym should have been the form *Mosky, unattested in written records. Already in a very early era, the form of