July 5, 2022

A microwave oven (ultra-high-frequency oven, MHP, microwave oven) is a household electrical appliance for quickly cooking or quickly heating food, as well as for defrosting it. A microwave oven is one of the most popular household electrical appliances. Unlike other devices (such as an oven or an oven), in a microwave oven the heating of food does not take place on the surface, but in the greater part of the volume, because radio waves (at a frequency of 2.450 GHz) penetrate deeply into almost all food products, as a result of which the time cooking is significantly reduced.


The microwave oven was invented and patented on October 8, 1945 by engineer Percy Spencer, a resident of Massachusetts. He was the first to notice the ability of ultra-high-frequency radiation to heat products. Spencer worked at the time of the invention at the Raytheon company, which was engaged in the manufacture of radar equipment. According to legend, the idea of ​​creating such an oven came to him after he, standing near a magnetron (an electronic lamp that generates microwave electromagnetic radiation), discovered that a chocolate bar in his pocket had melted. According to another version, he noticed that a sandwich placed on an activated magnetron had heated up. The first microwave ovens intended for army canteens and large restaurants had a large size. For example, the Radarange stove, produced in 1947 by Raytheon, was about 6 feet (183 cm) tall and weighed about 750 pounds (340 kg). Smaller home stoves began to be produced from 1955. The first such stove was sold on October 1, 1955 at a price of $1,295 by the Tappan Stove Company, which licensed microwave technology from Raytheon. The first mass-produced household microwave oven was produced by the Japanese company Sharp in 1962. Initially, the demand for the new product was low. In the USSR, microwave ovens were produced at the ZIL (Moscow, model "ZIL") and Pivdenmash (Dnipro, models "Mriya MV", "Dnipryanka-1" (1990, 32 liters, power 2300 watts, weight 40 kg, price 350 rubles) .), "Dnipryanka-2"), but they used imported Japanese-made magnetrons.

Working principle

The principle of operation of the microwave oven is based on the treatment of the product placed inside the device with microwaves (microwave radiation). These