January 22, 2022

Bridge (Proto-Slavic * mostъ, from * mesti, * metati - "throw", "throw") - a structure designed to move across the river, ravine and other obstacles, within which is the beginning and end of the span structures. , called an overpass, a bridge over a ravine or gorge - a viaduct. The bridge is one of the oldest engineering structures of mankind.


As a rule, bridges consist of girder structures and supports. Running structures are used to receive loads and transfer them to the supports, they can be located on the roadway, pedestrian crossing, pipeline and more. The supports transfer the load from the girder structures to the base of the bridge. Running structures consist of supporting structures: beams, trusses, diaphragms (transverse beams) and the actual slabs of the roadway. Static scheme of girder structures can be arched, beam, frame, cable or combined; it determines the type of bridge by design. Usually girder structures are rectilinear, but if necessary (for example, in the construction of overpasses and road junctions) they are given a complex shape: spiral, ring, and so on. The forms of supports can also be varied. Intermediate supports are called bulls, coastal - pillars. The latter are used to connect the bridge with suitable embankments. Materials for the construction of bridges are metal (steel and aluminum alloys), reinforced concrete, concrete, natural stone, wood, ropes.


Primitive bridges, which were a log thrown over a stream (such bridges are called masonry), existed in ancient times. Later, stone was used as a material. The first such bridges began to be built in the era of slave-owning society. Initially, only the bridge piers were made of stone, but then its entire structure became stone. Great success in stone bridge building was achieved by the ancient Romans, who used vaulted structures as supports and used cement, the secret of which was lost in the Middle Ages, but then rediscovered. Bridges (more precisely, aqueducts) were used to provide cities with water. The Roman historian Sextus Julius Frontinus wrote that aqueducts were the main witnesses to the greatness of the Roman Empire. Some ancient Roman bridges�

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