July 5, 2022

Napoleon I Bonaparte (French: Napoléon I Bonaparte; August 15, 1769 (17690815) - May 5, 1821) was a French statesman, commander, first consul of the French Republic (1799-1804), emperor of France (1804-1814, 1815). Creator of one of the largest empires in the world, reformer and legislator of Europe. A representative of the Bonaparte family. Born in Ajaccio, Corsica, France. Welcomed the French Revolution, became a general of the revolutionary army (from 1796). He commanded the French troops in the war against Austria and Piedmont (1796-1797), proving the talent of a great military leader and politician. In 1799, he staged a coup d'état in France: he left the power of the Directory and became consul. In 1804, he proclaimed France an empire, and himself its first emperor. Introduced new legislation that is in effect in most European countries. Thanks to victories over Austria, Prussia, and Russia, he conquered most of Western and Central Europe. Trying to establish hegemony on the continent, he opposed Britain and its allies. Suffered serious losses in the unsuccessful war with Russia (1812). After the unsuccessful Battle of Leipzig (1813) and the surrender of Paris, he lost the war to the coalition of Austria, Prussia and Russia. In 1814, he abdicated and was exiled to Elba. In 1815, he returned to Paris and restored imperial power, but was defeated in the Battle of Waterloo. He abdicated for the second time and was exiled to the British island of Saint Helena. Died in Longwood, St. Helena, Great Britain. National hero of France.



Napoleon Bonaparte came from a poor Corsican noble family of Charles and Letizia Buonaparte (there were only five sons and three daughters in the family). When Louis XVI granted children from impoverished noble families the right to receive free education, the Corsicans took advantage of this, including several sons and daughters of Charles, along with Napoleon. In 1779, after several months of improving his French at the College of Authen, Napoleon entered the military academy in Brienne. Ridiculed by his fellow students for provincialism and clumsiness, the poorest even among students who were not aristocrats, he actively professed the ideas of Corsican patriotism. In 1784, Napoleon was transferred to the Paris Military School. Bonaparte in