January 22, 2022

Populism is an ideology and socio-political movement that embraced people from the nobility and various intellectuals of the Russian Empire in the 60's - 80's of the 19th century. Representatives of this trend expressed the interests of peasant democracy, combining the radical-bourgeois-democratic and anti-serfdom program with the ideals of utopian socialism.

The basis of the ideology of "populism"

At the heart of the ideology of populism was the mystical belief in the n peasantry as a bearer of "higher wisdom of life." In the 1860s, the idea of ​​peasant socialism was actively promoted by M. Ogarev. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, subjective sociology (P. Lavrov, M. Mikhailovsky, and others) became the theoretical basis for the idea of ​​a non-capitalist path of development. In the 80's in populism developed economic romanticism (V. Vorontsov, M. Danielson and others), whose representatives proceeded from the opposition of types of economic evolution of Western Europe and Russia. Populist economists tried to prove the futility of Russia's capitalist development and the need to move to "people's production" - non-capitalist industrialization, the artel-communal method of organizing the economy. The most famous ideologues of populism in the 1870s were M. Bakunin, P. Lavrov and P. Tkachev. They saw the identity of the Russian peasant as the custodian of the ancient principles of communal property, and saw in this the possibility of Russia's transition to socialist relations, bypassing the stage of capitalist development. Considering the Russian peasant a "born socialist," M. Bakunin called on the youth to prepare a popular uprising against the three main enemies: private property, the state, and the church. According to some researchers, populism was imbued with messianic consciousness, inherited in part from Slavophiles, who claimed the nobility's guilt before the peasantry for the sins of serfs (V. Osinsky, S. Perovskaya, A. Zhelyabov, S. Nechaev, P. Tkachev and others). Populism brought together people from different political backgrounds, often very different. So some, for example, supported the theory of non-resistance to evil

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